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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2023

OR

 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from  __________ to __________

Commission file number: 001-39888

Affirm Holdings, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
84-2224323
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
650 California Street
San Francisco, California
94108
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
(415) 960-1518
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A common stock, par value $0.00001 per shareAFRMThe Nasdaq Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes     No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes     No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes     No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).     Yes     No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
  
Non-accelerated filer  
Smaller reporting company
  
Emerging growth company
  
                
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐ (1)

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐ (1)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).     Yes   ☐     No  

As of December 31, 2022, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s Class A common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $2.2 billion. As of August 21, 2023, the number of shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock outstanding was 239,682,937 and the number of shares of the registrant's Class B common stock outstanding was 59,613,780.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The information required by Part III of this Report, to the extent not set forth herein, is incorporated herein by reference from the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held in 2023, which definitive proxy statement shall be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this Report relates.
(1) Disclosure is not being provided under this item pursuant to guidance issued by the staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission.


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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”), as well as information included in oral statements or other written statements made or to be made by us, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this Report, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial condition, business strategy, and plans and objectives of management regarding future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, forward-looking statements may be identified by words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “design,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potentially,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:

our expectations regarding our future revenue, expenses, and other operating results and key operating metrics;
our ability to attract new merchants and commerce partners and retain and grow our relationships with existing merchants and commerce partners;
our ability to compete successfully in a highly competitive and evolving industry;
our ability to attract new consumers and retain and grow our relationships with our existing consumers;
our expectations regarding the development, innovation, introduction of, and demand for, our products;
our ability to successfully maintain our relationship with Celtic Bank as an originating bank partner and engage additional originating bank partners;
our ability to maintain, renew or replace our existing funding arrangements and build and grow new funding relationships;
the impact of any of our funding sources becoming unwilling or unable to provide funding to us on terms acceptable to us, or at all;
our ability to effectively price and score credit risk using our proprietary risk model;
the performance of loans facilitated and originated through our platform;
the future growth rate of our revenue and related key operating metrics;
our ability to achieve sustained profitability in the future;
our ability to remain in compliance with laws and regulations that currently apply or become applicable to our business;
our ability to protect our confidential, proprietary, or sensitive information;
past and future acquisitions, investments, and other strategic investments;
our ability to maintain, protect, and enhance our brand and intellectual property;
litigation, investigations, regulatory inquiries, and proceedings;
developments in our regulatory environment;
the impact of macroeconomic conditions on our business, including the impacts of inflation, a rising interest rate environment and corresponding increases in negotiated interest rate spreads, increasing recessionary concerns and the instability of financial institutions; and
the size and growth rates of the markets in which we compete.
Forward-looking statements, including statements such as “we believe” and similar statements, are based on our management’s current beliefs, opinions and assumptions and on information currently available as of the date of this Report. Such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that
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we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including risks described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive, heavily regulated and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for our management to predict all risks that we may face, nor can we assess the impact of all risks on our business or the extent to which any risk, or combination of risks, may cause our actual results to differ from those contained in, or implied by, any forward-looking statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable as of the date of this Report, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance, achievements, events, outcomes, timing of results or circumstances. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this Report or to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations. You should read this Form 10-K and the documents that we have filed as exhibits to this Report with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance, outcomes, achievements and timing of results or outcomes may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

Investors and others should note that we may announce material business and financial information to our investors using our investor relations website (investors.affirm.com), our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), webcasts, press releases, conference calls, and social media. We use these mediums, including our website, to communicate with investors and the general public about our company, our products, and other issues. It is possible that the information that we make available on our website may be deemed to be material information. We therefore encourage investors and others interested in our Company to review the information that we make available on our website. The contents of our website are not incorporated into this filing. We have included our investor relations website address only as an inactive textual reference for convenience and do not intend it to be an active link to our website.

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PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Company Overview

Affirm was founded in 2012 with a mission to deliver honest financial products that improve lives. We are building the next generation platform for digital and mobile-first commerce. We believe that by using modern technology, strong engineering talent, and a mission-driven approach, we can reinvent payments and commerce. Our solutions, which are built on trust and transparency, are designed to make it easier for consumers to spend responsibly and with confidence, easier for merchants and commerce platforms to convert sales and grow, and easier for commerce to thrive.

Our Business

Legacy payment options, archaic systems, and traditional risk and credit underwriting models can be harmful, deceptive, and restrictive to both consumers and merchants. We believe that they are not well-suited for increasingly digital and mobile-first commerce, and are built on legacy infrastructure that does not support the innovation required for modern commerce to evolve and flourish. Our platform is designed to address these problems.

Our company is predicated on the principles of simplicity, transparency, and putting people first. Since our founding, we have charged $0 in late fees for missed payments. We do not profit from consumers’ mistakes, and we are transparent in our product offerings. By adhering to these principles, we have built enduring, trust-based relationships with consumers and merchants.

We believe that our technology, underwriting, and risk management are key competitive advantages. Our proprietary technology’s ability to price and assess risk at a transaction level provides a unique advantage compared to legacy payment and credit systems. Our approach to risk management is core to our business model and has been proven to lead to lower fraud rates, higher approval rates compared to traditional credit underwriting models, and lower credit losses. Our models have been built on extensive data points, including data from almost 132 million loans. Furthermore, our risk management models are designed to continuously improve over time, becoming more precise and efficient with each transaction powered by our platform.

What this means for consumers is increased purchasing power and more control and flexibility. As of June 30, 2023, almost 36 million consumers have trusted Affirm as their transaction partner. By utilizing our unique risk model predicated on sophisticated machine learning algorithms, proprietary data, and product-level underwriting, we can serve consumers across the credit spectrum and price risk across transaction types. Consumers on our platform represent a broad cross-section of society.

For merchants, Affirm's commerce solutions help drive growth by enhancing demand generation and customer acquisition. Our platform is explicitly designed and engineered to integrate with a wide range of merchants. This is a point of differentiation for us, as we can accommodate and partner with merchants regardless of industry, size, average order value (AOV”), or customer profile. As of June 30, 2023, we had approximately 254,000 active merchants, ranging from small businesses to large enterprises, direct-to-consumer brands, brick-and-mortar stores, and companies with an omni-channel presence. Our merchants span a diverse range of industries, including sporting goods and outdoors, furniture and homewares, travel and ticketing, apparel, accessories, consumer electronics, and jewelry.

We have two loan product offerings: Pay-in-4 and Core loans. Pay-in-4 is a short-term payment plan with four biweekly 0% APR installments, while Core loans include all monthly interest-bearing installment loans and 0% APR installment loans.

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Our business model is designed to align with the interests of both consumers and merchants.

From merchants, we typically earn a fee when we help them convert a sale and power a payment. Merchant fees depend on the individual arrangement between us and each merchant and vary based on the terms of the product offering; we generally earn larger merchant fees on 0% annual percentage rate (“APR”) financing products. For fiscal year ended June 30, 2023, Pay-in-4 and Core 0% loans represented 19% and 13%, respectively, of total Gross Merchandise Volume (“GMV) facilitated through our platform. For fiscal year ended June 30, 2022, Pay-in-4 and Core 0% loans represented 22% and 21%, respectively, of total GMV. This structure incentivizes us to help our merchants convert sales and increase AOV through the commerce and technology solutions offered by our platform.

From consumers, we earn interest income on the interest bearing installment loans that we originate or purchase from our originating bank partners. Interest rates charged to our consumers vary depending on the transaction risk, creditworthiness of the consumer, the repayment term selected by the consumer, the amount of the loan, and the individual arrangement with a merchant. Because consumers are never charged deferred or compounding interest or late fees, we are not incentivized to profit from our consumers’ mistakes or misfortunes.

We also facilitate the issuance of virtual cards directly to consumers through our App as well as the Affirm Card, formerly “Affirm Debit+”, which allows consumers to shop with merchants that are not integrated with Affirm. Merchants may also elect to use the virtual card as a method to facilitate the offering of installment loans to allow their customers to pay over time. Merchants are charged an interchange fee for each successful Affirm Card transaction, and a portion of this revenue is shared with us by our card-issuing partners.

We have already achieved significant scale, facilitating consumer purchases of $20.2 billion in GMV in fiscal year 2023.

Our Platform

Our business transforms the way consumers and merchants transact by creating a powerful platform built upon honest financial products. We started our business with our foundational pay-over-time solution at checkout, and have since continued to innovate and expand our product suite by building and acquiring solutions that address the evolving needs of both consumers and merchants. Our platform comprises three core elements: point-of-sale payment solutions for consumers, merchant commerce solutions, and a consumer-focused app. The current suite of solutions we provide to our consumers and merchants is outlined below:

Consumer features

Affirm at Checkout. When purchasing from one of our partner merchants, consumers can choose Affirm as a payment method, giving them the option to pay over time with terms ranging from weeks to months. We monitor merchants’ creditworthiness, consumer complaints and dispute rates, changes in consumer repayment behavior, and other data to give consumers the confidence that merchants integrated with Affirm are committed to delivering honest and delightful experiences.

Consumer first borrowing. Our frictionless solution makes it easy for consumers to apply for a loan and be approved on the spot. Consumers receive either 0% APR, where they pay no interest, or simple interest loans, where they pay fixed amounts of interest that never compound. We underwrite each transaction individually and—by never charging late fees—we do not profit when consumers fall behind. Our success is fundamentally aligned with our consumers’ success. Our proprietary risk model has consistently outperformed traditional credit models, enabling us to better help eligible consumers finance their purchases. Consumers never pay more than what they agreed to at checkout, even if they miss or are late on a payment.

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Affirm Marketplace. Our Affirm app and website provides tailored and exclusive offers from merchants based on consumers’ preferences. Consumers can apply at affirm.com or via the Affirm app and, upon approval, receive a single-use virtual card to use online or in-store. During the fiscal year ended June 30, 2023, 20% of our transactions occurred on the Affirm marketplace.

Affirm Card. Affirm Card allows consumers to link a bank account to pay in full, or pay later by accessing credit through the Affirm App. Users can take advantage of a unique in-app post-purchase feature that allows them to instantly convert any eligible debit transaction into an installment loan. Consumers can also apply for a pre-purchase installment loan via the Affirm app and, upon approval, use the Affirm Card online or in-store to complete their purchase. Consumers can transact either via a physical debit card or a virtual card.

High-yield savings account. Through the Affirm app and in partnership with Cross River Bank, we offer an FDIC-insured, interest-bearing savings account, with no minimum deposit requirements or fees.

Merchant features

Affirm at Checkout. Through our direct application programming interface (“API”), designed for use by developers, merchants can easily incorporate Affirm into their payment and product pages, enabling merchants to achieve incremental sales, expand their target markets and increase customer conversion and loyalty by solving affordability for consumers. We are also able to help merchants increase demand for higher net AOV items.

Flexible offerings that address a wider range of transactions. Merchants can offer either one or a combination of 0% APR and interest-bearing pay-over-time offerings. Offering 0% APR financing to their customers is a compelling revenue accelerator for merchants, who are able to solve affordability for their customers without resorting to discounts. Merchants have the ability to subsidize and determine the range of interest rates to be paid by their customers.

Brand-sponsored and other promotional strategies. We have the ability to work with manufacturers on brand-specific promotional financing offers. These promotions are funded by suppliers and then made available through our merchants. The suppliers cover the costs of the lowered APR for their products, with no added costs to our merchants. This gives our merchants a powerful alternative to markdowns as they can increase sales with no impact to their margins. At the same time, suppliers can sell through additional volume. We also partner with merchants to reach consumers with other promotional strategies and offers.

Merchant dashboard. Our merchant dashboard provides a robust user interface through which each merchant can view transaction data, manage charges, access API keys, and manage and configure the merchant’s Affirm account.

Analytics. We provide merchants with insightful analytics that help them understand how their various products are performing and other key insights to optimize conversion and customer acquisition costs.

Client success support. Our high-touch client success team partners with our merchants to analyze performance and provides custom recommendations to optimize AOVs and conversion rates.

Affirm app and marketplace. Merchants also have access to Affirm’s app, which provides a marketplace that allows them to efficiently reach customers through featured placements and personalized advertisements.

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Affirm website and developer documentation. Our website contains extensive and engaging developer documentation designed to make it easy for any developer to integrate via our direct API or other integrations, and to maximize the benefit of all that Affirm offers to both merchants and consumers.

Affirm prequalification. By giving consumers the ability to prequalify, Affirm’s offering can be integrated earlier in the consumer’s journey. We believe this results in fewer abandoned carts and higher conversion rates. Prequalification also personalizes the shopping experience for consumers, once they are prequalified they may receive customized offers based on their approval amount.

Simple and compliant solution. Our direct API, designed for use by developers, allows for site integration with minimal merchant investment. Merchants can easily incorporate our platform into payment and product pages, and we provide a dedicated integration team to assist with issue resolution. Once a merchant has integrated our API, we handle the regulatory aspect of the loans facilitated through our platform, irrespective of state, province, or jurisdiction.

Our Competitive Advantages

We believe we have a number of competitive advantages that will continue to contribute to our success.

Strong network effects

We benefit from self-reinforcing network effects, which are advantages that compound with each additional consumer and merchant that joins our network:

As consumers learn about the key benefits of our solutions, we believe more and more will choose to use our platform, and our consumer base will continue to grow.

The larger our consumer ecosystem, the more valuable it is to merchants, and the more compelling it is for merchants to offer Affirm as a payment option.

The more merchants integrated into our network, the more reasons consumers have to shop with Affirm.

Our costs decrease as a percentage of GMV as our consumer ecosystem expands. For example, the additional data we have on repeat consumers enables us to make better underwriting decisions and therefore generally results in proportionately lower provision for credit losses expense on GMV from repeat customers than from first time customers. For the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, 88% and 81%, respectively, of the transactions facilitated through our platform were driven by repeat consumers.

Improved direct expense efficiency enables us to create even more compelling offers for consumers and merchants, in turn attracting more consumers and merchants to our network.

The net result is that we are building a consumer and merchant ecosystem on our platform that we expect to continue to grow and monetize over time.

Engineering and technology infrastructure

Technology is at the core of everything we do. Our solutions use machine learning, artificial intelligence, cloud-based technologies, and other modern tools to create differentiated and scalable products. We prioritize building our own technology and investing in engineering talent, as we believe these are enduring competitive advantages that are difficult to replicate.

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Our direct API also allows merchant partners to easily integrate Affirm. From the smallest direct-to-consumer online brand to the largest merchants running on mainframe computers, the technical aspects of integrating with Affirm are quick and painless. Full integration can be completed very quickly, often within days after signing our merchant agreement.

Data advantages that compound over time

Our expertise in sourcing, aggregating, protecting, and analyzing data has been what we believe to be a core competitive advantage of our platform since our founding. We use data to inform our analysis and decision-making, including risk assessment, in a way that empowers consumers and generates value for our merchants and funding sources.

Our technology is built to handle the immense scale of our data-driven operations — we are capable of processing thousands of checkouts per minute. Our machine learning-based risk models are currently calibrated and validated on an extensive amount of data points, based on a complex set of variables, and are custom built to effectively detect fraud, price risk, and provide customized recommendations. We consider data beyond traditional credit scores, such as transaction history and credit usage, to predict repayment ability, and leverage this with real-time response data. In some cases, we also are able to access and leverage SKU-level data to assess and underwrite risk for individual transactions before extending access to credit.

Better outcomes generated by our proprietary risk models

We believe our risk model informs our ability to better assess risk. Unlike legacy payment and credit systems, we can assess risk at a transaction level, rather than relying solely on a static consumer credit score. Our integration with our merchant partners allows us to consider the product that the consumer is purchasing when we assess a credit application. We believe our proprietary risk model has translated this advantage into the ability to facilitate a greater volume of transactions from a wider and more diverse segment of consumers. The greater accuracy of our risk model also generally benefits our provision for credit losses on loans we retain.

Our continuously learning risk model benefits from increasing scale. As data from new transactions are incorporated into our risk algorithms, we are able to more effectively assess a given credit profile.

Our ability to quickly assess, price, and manage risk enables us to generate high quality assets that attract funding sources and generate predictable servicing and interest income as consumers repay over time. Our risk model is designed to comply with our originating bank partners’ credit policies and underwriting procedures and has been proven to lead to low fraud rates and higher approval rates compared to traditional credit underwriting models.

For more information on how our risk model automates the underwriting process for our originating bank partners, see “— Regulatory Environment — State and provincial licensing requirements and regulation.”

Deep capital markets expertise

We believe our capital management strategy is a key competitive differentiator, enabling us to effectively scale our network, support GMV growth across our ecosystem, and efficiently recycle equity capital. Our durable funding model consists of three primary channels warehouse credit facilities, programmatic issuance of term and revolving securitization transactions, and forward flow commitments. Within each channel, we endeavor to maximize our financial flexibility by partnering with a broad spectrum of counterparty profiles including depository institutions, investment banks, strategic investment funds, pension funds, asset managers, and insurance companies. By maintaining access to a diversified array of long-term funding sources and leveraging our proprietary underwriting process at the point-of-sale, we are able to monetize high-quality financial assets at scale.
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Our Competition

Our primary competition consists of: legacy payment methods, such as credit and debit cards, including those provided by card issuing banks such as Synchrony, J.P. Morgan Chase, Citibank, Bank of America, Capital One, Bread Financial, and American Express; technology solutions provided by payment companies such as Visa and MasterCard; mobile wallets such as PayPal and Apple; and other pay-over-time solutions offered by companies such as Block and Klarna as well as new pay-over-time offerings by legacy financial and payments companies, including those mentioned above. Additionally, merchants are increasingly offering proprietary pay-over-time options to customers, and in some cases, these are presented parallel to our offerings at checkout.

Our technology-driven platform also faces competition from a variety of players, including those who enable transactions and commerce via digital payments. Technology-enabled companies like ours are increasingly gaining market share from legacy financial institutions.

We believe that we compete favorably based on our competitive advantages and are well-positioned to succeed in the market. However, many of our competitors are substantially larger than we are, which may give those competitors advantages we do not have at present, such as a more diversified product offering, a larger consumer and merchant base, the ability to reach more consumers and potential consumers, operational efficiencies, the ability to cross-subsidize their offerings through their other business lines, more versatile technology platforms, broad-based local distribution capabilities, and lower-cost funding. Our potential competitors may also have longer operating histories, more extensive and broader consumer and merchant relationships, and greater brand recognition and brand loyalty than we have. In addition, other established companies that possess large, existing consumer and merchant bases, substantial financial resources, or established distribution channels could also enter the market.

Our Growth Strategy

Our multi-pronged growth strategy is designed to build upon our momentum and unlock opportunities to create even greater value for consumers and merchants.

Expand solutions for merchants and consumers

Innovate on new consumer product solutions. We plan to continue to innovate and bring new honest financial products to market for consumers. During fiscal 2023, for example, we rebranded our former Affirm Debit+ to Affirm Card and made the product generally available to all eligible consumers.

Increase merchant feature functionality. As we continue to help merchants increase conversion rates, AOVs, and customer satisfaction, we plan to build new tools to help them optimize their customer acquisition strategies and achieve even greater results. For example, during fiscal 2023, we continued to innovate on Adaptive CheckoutTM, which dynamically provides optimized biweekly and monthly payment options side-by-side in a single integrated checkout solution and has driven a significant increase in conversion rates, optimized interest rates and have improved the overall user experience. Additionally, we have offered merchants the ability to acquire new customers through improvements in our dynamic messaging capabilities designed to drive purchase intent, higher priced conversion packages that offer longer term 0% APR offers, and improved merchant support capabilities through self-service resources and capabilities in the merchant portal.

Increase Consumer Transaction Frequency

We have demonstrated how our solutions can successfully enable and accelerate commerce for larger and considered purchases. We aim to continue driving repeat use of our platform as we serve consumers beyond their initial purchase via our consumer-centric tools and offerings, and the increased diversity of merchants on our network. We believe expanding into consumers’ daily and in-store spending will be a key in driving repeat usage
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and will position us to increase engagement with both consumers and merchants. Affirm Card is an important component of this strategy because consumers using Affirm Card often have higher transactions per user and greater in-store usage. If successful, we believe that this strategy will lead to increased transaction volume on our platform, as well as the expansion of our consumer and merchant network. As of June 30, 2023, we had approximately 3.9 transactions per active consumer, an increase of approximately 30% compared to June 30, 2022 and an increase of 70% compared to June 30, 2021.

Expand consumer reach

We will continue marketing to increase brand awareness with consumers and highlight the value of our platform. We believe this will attract new consumers to try Affirm as a payment option. As we add more consumers to our network, our models become more efficient and robust, allowing us to provide our platform (and the loans it facilitates) to a growing spectrum of consumers. The more consumers that we serve, the better our systems understand how to identify responsible consumers, and the more consumers we can acquire and approve.

Expand merchant reach

Deepen penetration with existing merchants. Today, Affirm transactions represent a small percentage of the total transaction volume for our merchants. As more consumers become aware of the ease and transparency of using Affirm, and as we proactively build relationships with merchants through our dedicated sales and customer success teams, we believe we can significantly increase our share of existing merchants’ overall transaction volumes.

Increase the number of our merchant partnerships. We believe we have the opportunity to significantly increase the number of integrated merchants on our network through both our dedicated sales team and business-to-business marketing efforts. Additionally, simple, direct API integration means bringing on new merchants is a seamless process. As we continue to generate results for merchants, we believe more will join our platform in order to offer Affirm as an option to their customers.

Expand to new markets

Our platform is broadly available to merchants and eligible consumers in the United States and Canada. We will continue to evaluate expanding our platform to new markets. Merchants and consumers anywhere can benefit from a more transparent, fair, and honest way to engage in commerce, and we see an opportunity to generate value in many new markets around the world through our platform.

Our Technology

Our products are built on a cloud-first platform engineered for temporally agnostic data aggregation, schematization, management, and decisioning, which enables our products to leverage years of deep behavioral, financial, shopping, and payment data across all facets of our platform, from fraud and pricing, to personalization and repayment. Our vertically integrated technology powers a rich data landscape across products, which drives increased efficiency that unlocks greater scale. Increasing scale powers a flywheel that further drives incremental data capture and improves the efficiency of each transaction, and that efficiency allows us to more finely price transactions, measure risk, deliver value to our customers, and personalize consumer experiences.

We invest in technology to create this flywheel effect as we believe it builds an increasing and durable competitive advantage as we operate with higher confidence in our model decisions, lower costs of each transaction, and improve our ability to price transactions with a lower margin of error. The increasing scale is leveraged by our technology as increasing value is delivered to participants in our network of merchants, consumers, and capital partners.

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Fraud detection capabilities. To assess transaction fraud risk, we first seek to establish the consumer’s identity using basic information. The consumer is then evaluated by our fraud model, and we will then either move forward in the approval flow, or request additional data from the consumer. Our sophisticated fraud models utilize approximately 80 other data points in order to make a near-instantaneous decision on whether to block a transaction. There are also secondary rules that, when triggered, are designed to send a transaction to fraud investigators.

Credit check capabilities. Our risk model takes five top-of-mind data inputs and turns them into a total of over 500 data points in order to assess the credit risk of new consumers. Our algorithms model out the repayment probability on a month-to-month basis, and combine these probabilities with the term length, purchase size, merchant, and item being purchased, in order to price and score risk. In the vast majority of cases, we can complete these checks and calculations in a matter of seconds, automating the underwriting process pursuant to our originating bank partners’ underwriting policies. We use application and transaction data to train our model, including data from almost 132 million loans.

Modeling improvements. Our high cadence for modeling, retraining, and recalibration translates into rapid improvements to our models over time. New data is regularly used to retrain each model, meaning they continue to improve as the numbers of consumers, merchants, transactions, and repayments we power on our platform grow. We also perform periodic larger scale updates to our core model and algorithms. We regularly introduce new data signals to be captured by our risk analysis system and make them available to be incorporated into new model development, training, and validation. Additionally, we explore opportunities to capture data outside of our model approvals, in order to make a breadth of data available to future models. During these updates, new signals are captured, and older data interrogated and re-tested to help our models continue to evolve. We have automated the process of constructing, training, calibrating, validating, and updating our models, which allow our scientists and engineers to focus on research, flexibility, and speed. Our models are designed to enable us to adjust our models quickly and efficiently in response to changes in the environment.

Designed for constant innovation and flexibility. Our deep technological talent and capabilities have enabled us to strategically build core systems (including our own ledger) and infrastructure in-house, allowing us to gain what we believe is a significant competitive advantage as we continue to innovate and iterate, and develop new capabilities across multiple disciplines. The flexibility of our custom-built technological infrastructure means we can incorporate new merchants, platforms, data sources, models, capital partnerships, and other elements without adding significant overhead.

Data privacy and security. We store and process data while maintaining robust physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards designed to protect that data. We maintain physical security measures designed to guard against unauthorized access to systems and use safeguards such as firewalls and data encryption. We also have deployed physical access controls to our buildings, and our policies authorize access to personal information only for those employees or agents who require it to fulfill the responsibilities of their jobs.

Sales and Marketing

Our marketing strategy includes brand marketing, communications, and co-marketing campaigns that we collaborate on with merchants and partners. We have historically relied on the strength of our merchant relationships and positive user experience to develop our brand and grow our network. We have achieved significant merchant and consumer adoption without investing heavily in sales and marketing relative to our competitors. We are focused on the effectiveness of sales and marketing spending. We also utilize dedicated sales teams to grow our merchant base in the United States and Canada, and leverage strategic partnerships with other platforms to expand our merchant and consumer base.

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Seasonality

We experience seasonal fluctuations in our business as a result of consumer spending patterns. Historically, our GMV has been the strongest during the second quarter of our fiscal year due to increases in retail commerce during the holiday season. Despite these higher GMV levels, in fiscal 2023 and 2022, we generated less in period revenue as a percentage of GMV during our second fiscal quarter due to the comparatively higher proportion of interest bearing loans originated in the latter half of the period, which typically results in lower merchant network revenue, which is recognized in period, and higher levels of interest income, which is recognized over a longer time horizon. We expect these seasonal patterns to continue in future periods, and any adverse events that occur during our second fiscal quarter could have a disproportionate effect on our financial results for the fiscal year.

Human Capital Resources

Our employees

As of June 30, 2023, we had a total of 2,171 employees, primarily located in the United States. None of our employees are represented by a labor union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement. We have not experienced any work stoppages, and we consider our relations with our employees to be good.

Distinctive culture that sets us apart

We believe our culture gives us a long-term, sustainable competitive advantage. Affirm is purpose-built from the ground up, and our employees, who have named themselves “Affirmers,” are deeply committed to delivering honest financial products that improve lives. Five core values permeate every part of Affirm — which includes our people, products, and business:

People come first. We consider our impact on people’s lives before we think about our own interests. This means that we do not and will not take advantage of our consumers. Unlike much of the industry, we do not capitalize on consumer misfortunes through practices such as late fees and deferred or compounding interest. Our success is aligned with our consumers’ success. In fact, we depend on it.

No fine print. We are transparent and honest — with our consumers and with each other. That is why there are no hidden fees or tricks associated with the loans facilitated through our platform. What you see is what you get.

It’s on us. We take full accountability for our actions, never shirking responsibility or passing the buck. Affirmers own problems and solutions, and we hold each other accountable.

Simpler is better. We make complex things simple and clear. Financial products and payments have traditionally been fraught with complexity. We found a better way, a way that brings consumers the simplicity they need and merchants the results they want.

Push the envelope. We never stop innovating, taking smart risks, and raising the bar. Talented people are attracted to Affirm because we empower them to innovate, create robust systems, and take smart risks. This momentum keeps our consumer and merchant network growing and thriving.

These values have helped us to attract, inspire, and harness the collective talent of exceptional technologists and business people.

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Diversity, equity, and inclusion

We believe that diversity, equity, and inclusion (“DEI”) are important as we scale and build our high-performing team. Our strategy involves embedding DEI into our processes, programs, and structures at Affirm across the employee life cycle — how we hire, develop, advance, and retain Affirmers, and in how we do business.

Our Diversity and Inclusion Steering Committee (“DISC”), an internal committee made up of senior leaders from across Affirm, provides support and guidance to departments and teams on initiatives that may impact the ability to support diverse populations of key constituencies: employees, consumers and merchants. DISC is also responsible for reviewing internal and external DEI initiatives, and DEI members help to amplify high-impact DEI efforts happening within their own departments. Below are several highlights from our DEI work in calendar year 2022 (the latest year for which we have issued a DEI Report):
Affirm added two new Community Groups (Neurodiversity and Southwest Asia & North Africa) in addition to the existing thirteen Employee Resource & Community Groups. Affirm’s Employee Resource Groups (“ERGs”) support and advance Affirm’s values and business goals. This includes the Company’s commitment to providing equal employment opportunities and facilitating a culture where all Affirmers feel like they belong. ERGs include Affirmers from underrepresented groups (“URGs”) and their allies. Affirm's Community Groups (“CGs”) help build belonging, community, and inclusion at Affirm. Our CGs come together over common identities, shared characteristics, or shared life experiences.
In 2022, we focused on supporting Affirmers around the world after hiring Affirmers in three countries (Spain, Poland, and Canada) in 2021. This year, Poland-based Affirmers started chapters of our Women@ Affirm ERG and Mental Wellness Community Group. More than 50% of Poland-based employees expressed an interest in joining Mental Wellness and Women@.
In 2021, we promoted over 50 small or minority-owned businesses through various Affirm-sponsored promotional campaigns. In 2022, we increased this by 130%, highlighting 115 small and minority-owned businesses across Affirm’s platforms, including the Shop Black-Owned Businesses page.
We annually publish our DEI Report, which discloses certain demographic information relating to our team and outlines our DEI goals, our progress toward them, our areas for improvement, and where we expect to focus our efforts. The 2022 report is available at: www.affirm.com/diversity-inclusion. This website has been provided for convenience only, and the contents of the report and information found on, or accessible through, our website are not a part of, and are not incorporated into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Our board of directors’ role in human capital resource management

Our board of directors believes that human capital management is an important component of our continued growth and success, and is critical to our ability to attract, retain, and develop talented and skilled employees. We pride ourselves on a culture that respects co-workers and values concern for others. Management regularly reports to our board of directors on human capital management topics, including corporate culture, safety, diversity and inclusion, employee development, and compensation and benefits. Our board of directors provides input on important decisions, including with respect to safety, talent retention and development.

Employee incentives and benefits

We provide equity incentives to our employees through the grant of stock options and restricted stock units (“RSUs”) under our equity incentive plan to align their interests with stockholders as “owners” of our company. We also have adopted an Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”) pursuant to which eligible employees can purchase shares of our Class A common stock at a discount from the fair market value. We believe these incentive programs allow us to be competitive with comparable companies in our industry by giving us the resources to attract, motivate and retain talented individuals.

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We offer comprehensive benefits, including medical, dental, vision, life insurance, paid time off, various voluntary insurance programs, and a 401(k) retirement plan for U.S. employees. Our employee assistance program, financial wellness benefits, legal protection benefits, and identification theft protection benefits offer employees information, referrals, and short-term counseling for personal issues affecting their work or personal life as an added layer of protection. In addition, we offer perks, such as employer-sponsored digital spending wallets, mental health benefits, family & fertility benefits and generous leave and time-off policies, which we believe enhance employee productivity, satisfaction and loyalty.

Regulatory Environment

We operate in a rapidly evolving regulatory environment and are subject to extensive regulation, both directly and indirectly, by way of our partnership with our originating bank partners, under U.S. federal law, the laws of Canada, and the United Kingdom (“U.K.”), and the laws of the states and provinces in which we operate, among others. These laws cover all aspects of our business and include privacy laws, consumer protection laws, and contractual obligations. We could become subject to additional legal or regulatory requirements if laws or regulations change in the jurisdictions in which we operate. These could include the need to obtain new and different types of licenses in order to conduct our business, such as for lending, brokering, servicing, collections, or money transmission. For more information on the risks relating to our regulatory environment, see the section titled “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Our Regulatory Environment.”

Our lending programs are relatively novel and must comply with regulatory regimes applicable to consumer credit transactions. In addition, the regulatory framework for online lending platforms is evolving and uncertain as federal and state governments consider the application of existing laws and adoption of new laws to regulate these structures. Certain banking laws and regulations may also apply to our originating bank partners.

State and provincial licensing requirements and regulation

Our operations must satisfy the laws and standards of each individual U.S. state and territory and Canadian province in which we operate. This means that when individual states, territories or provinces differ in how they allow financing to be provided and used, we must operate consistently in accordance with the most comprehensive requirements.

Our policies and practices approach these requirements with the goal of managing the long-term viability and flexibility of our business model. As such, we have established a business model pursuant to which we may originate loans directly through our platform under our lending, servicing, and brokering licenses across various jurisdictions in the U.S., Canada, and U.K., and we may also purchase loans originated by our originating bank partners through our platform. Substantially all of the loans facilitated through our platform in the U.S. are originated through Celtic Bank, an FDIC-insured Utah state-chartered industrial bank.

Certain states, provinces, and localities have adopted laws regulating and requiring licensing, registration, notice filing, or other approval by parties that engage in certain activity regarding consumer finance transactions, including facilitating and assisting such transactions in certain circumstances, debt collection or servicing, and/or purchasing or selling consumer loans. We have also received inquiries from regulatory agencies regarding requirements to obtain licenses from or register with those jurisdictions, including in states where we have determined that we are not required to obtain such a license or be registered with the state, and we expect to continue to receive such inquiries. We are also subject to licensing requirements, supervision, and examination by applicable regulatory authorities in the jurisdictions in which we may service loans, solicit or offer loans, or originate loans directly through our platform, and we have obtained or are in the process of obtaining necessary licenses in the jurisdictions in which we do so. Licensing statutes vary from state to state and prescribe different requirements, including but not limited to: restrictions on loan origination and servicing practices (including limits on the type, amount, and manner of fees), solicitation activities, interest rate limits, disclosure requirements, periodic examination requirements, surety bond and minimum specified net worth requirements, periodic financial reporting requirements, notification requirements for changes in principal officers, stock ownership or corporate control,
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restrictions on advertising, and requirements that loan forms be submitted for review. The application of state and provincial licensing requirements to our business model is not always clear, and while we believe we are in compliance as of June 30, 2023 with applicable licensing requirements, regulators may request or require that we obtain additional licenses or other authorizations in the future, which may subject our business to additional restrictions or requirements.

State interest rate treatment

We and our originating bank partners may also be subject to state law interest rate limitations on personal consumer loans. Certain states have no such limitations, while other jurisdictions impose a maximum rate on such loans. In some jurisdictions, the maximum rate may be less than the rates applicable to the loans facilitated through our platform. If any of the loans facilitated through our platform were found to impose rates higher than the maximum rate for the applicable state, such loans could be in violation of state interest limitation laws, which could result in such loans being unenforceable or reduce or extinguish the principal and/or interest (paid or to be paid) on such loans, or result in fees, damages, and penalties to us or our originating bank partners. Out of an abundance of caution, however, we have sought to voluntarily cap the maximum interest rate we will propose for a loan to borrowers in certain states so that it is below the maximum interest rate that our originating bank partners would otherwise be permitted to charge under applicable law.

Through our partnerships with our originating bank partners, as well as through our state lending licenses to originate loans directly, where applicable, our risk model automates the underwriting process in accordance with our originating bank partners’ underwriting policies, which only our originating bank partners may change and which we must follow in reviewing, approving, and administering loans facilitated by our platform, and our direct lending entity’s underwriting policy. When originating loans through our platform, our originating bank partners may contract to charge interest based on authority granted to state-chartered, FDIC-insured banks under federal law (Section 27 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) and based upon legal principles detailed in the FDIC’s final rule relating to Federal Interest Rate Authority, published in the Federal Register on July 22, 2020. Section 27 allows an FDIC-insured bank such as our originating bank partners to charge interest to consumers on a nationwide basis based on the rates allowed by the state where the bank is located. We rely on our originating bank partners’ authority under federal law to establish interest rates and charge interest on the loans our originating bank partners originate through our platform. Cross River Bank generally allows a consumer loan borrower to agree to any annual rate of interest up to 30%, and our other originating bank partners, including Celtic Bank, generally allow a consumer loan borrower to agree to any annual rate of interest up to 36%, in each case calculated in accordance with the FDIC Federal Interest Rate Authority rule discussed above and other applicable law.

However, if the legal structure underlying our relationship with our originating bank partners was successfully challenged, we may be found to be in violation of state licensing requirements and state laws regulating interest rates and other aspects of consumer lending. In the event of such a challenge or if our arrangements with our originating bank partners were to change or end for any reason, we would need to rely on an alternative bank relationship, find an alternative bank relationship, rely on existing state licenses, obtain new state licenses, pursue a federal charter, offer consumer loans, and/or be subject to the interest rate limitations and loan product requirement limitations of certain states. There are two examples of claims that have been raised that could each, separately or jointly, result in this outcome in some or all states.

The FDIC stated that its Federal Interest Rate Authority Rule was promulgated in part to codify the “valid when made” doctrine due to court decisions such as the one in Madden v. Midland Funding, LLC, 786 F.3d 246 (2d Cir. 2015), cert. denied, 136 S.Ct. 2505 (June 27, 2016). In Madden v. Midland Funding, the Second Circuit ruled that federal preemption generally applicable to national banks did not apply to non-bank assignees if the assignee was not acting on behalf of the bank, if the bank no longer had an interest in the loan, or such determination did not significantly interfere with the bank’s exercise of its federal banking powers. Under this rationale, the Second Circuit did not preempt state interest rate limitations that might apply to the non-bank assignees. The Second Circuit’s holding in the Madden case is binding on federal courts in the states of New York, Connecticut, and Vermont. Following the Madden decision, there have been a number of lawsuits in other parts of the country making
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similar allegations. Under the Federal Interest Rate Authority Rule promulgated by the FDIC, which is the interest rate authority of state-chartered banks (such as our originating bank partners), the interest rate applicable to a loan originated by a state-chartered bank on the date of origination will carry with the loan irrespective of ownership (i.e., the interest rate is “valid when made”). The OCC issued a similar rule on May 29, 2020 with respect to loans originated by national banks. State attorneys general of the states of California, New York and Illinois have filed a lawsuit against the OCC alleging that the OCC had no statutory authority to issue its May 29, 2020 rule regarding the permissibility of interest rates on loans purchased from a national bank and failed to follow required procedures in promulgating the rule. State attorneys general of the states of California, Illinois, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, and North Carolina, together with the District of Columbia, filed a similar lawsuit against the FDIC regarding the FDIC Federal Interest Rate Authority Rule. This lawsuit was decided in favor of the FDIC pursuant to the Northern District of California’s decision in California v. FDIC, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 22719 (N.D. CA, Feb. 8, 2022), in which the court expressly upheld the validity of the FDIC Federal Interest Rate Authority Rule, distinguishing it from the similar rule issued by the OCC. However, it is uncertain whether these or other state attorneys general will file similar suits with respect to any other rule regarding the permissibility of interest rates by the FDIC, OCC or other regulators. Notably, the FDIC and OCC rules underscore that they do not address the question of whether a bank or insured branch of a foreign bank is a real party in interest with respect to a loan or has an economic interest in the loan under state law, e.g. which entity is the “true lender.” Federal Interest Rate Authority, 85 Fed. Reg. 44146 (July 22, 2020).

Before and after the Federal Interest Rate Authority went into effect, there have also been both private litigation and governmental enforcement actions seeking to recharacterize a lending transaction, claiming that the named lender was not the true lender, and that instead another entity was the true lender or the de facto lender. These claims are traditionally based upon state lending laws, other statutory provisions, or state common law through which a private litigant or governmental agency could seek to license, regulate, or prohibit the activities of the entity they consider the true lender or de facto lender. Any such litigation or enforcement action with respect to a loan facilitated through our platform against us, any successor servicer, prior owners, or subsequent transferees of such loans (including our originating bank partners) could subject them to claims for damages, disgorgement, or other penalties or remedies. On October 27, 2020, under the Trump Administration, the OCC promulgated a final rulemaking setting forth standards for determining the true lender of a loan issued by a national bank. On June 30, 2021, President Biden signed a Congressional Review Act resolution to repeal the OCC's true lender rule, and the OCC may not issue any substantially similar rule without subsequent statutory authorization.

Further, it is unclear whether these rules will be given effect by courts and regulators in a manner that actually mitigates risks relating to state interest rate limits and related risks to us, our originating bank partners, any other program participant, or the loans facilitated through our platform. While most enforcement and litigation has historically targeted high-interest rate programs (i.e. > 100% APR), which we consider to be inconsistent with our company mission and values, we nonetheless could be subject to litigation, whether private or governmental, or administrative action regarding the above claims. The potential consequences of an adverse determination could include the inability to collect loans at the interest rates contracted for, licensing violations, the loans being found to be unenforceable or void, the reduction of interest or principal, or other penalties or damages. Third-party purchasers of loans facilitated through our platform also may be subject to scrutiny or similar litigation, whether based upon the inability to rely upon the “valid when made” doctrine or because a party other than the originating bank is deemed the true lender.

Money transmission

Through our wholly-owned subsidiary, Affirm Payments, LLC (“Affirm Payments”), we hold licenses to operate as a money transmitter (or its equivalent) in certain states and jurisdictions of the U.S. Affirm Payments is actively seeking additional licenses and certifications of this nature, but there can be no assurance we will be able to obtain them or the timeline with which this will happen. As a licensed money transmitter, we have obligations and restrictions with respect to the investments of customer funds, recurrent reporting, and bonding. If found to have violated the laws or regulations covered under our licenses, we could be subject to liability and/or additional restrictions. These include, but are not limited to, being forced to cease doing business with residents of certain
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states or territories, forced to change our business practices, or required to obtain additional licenses or regulatory approvals. Any of the aforementioned scenarios could impose substantial costs and or harm our business.

    United Kingdom regulatory oversight

In addition to the U.S. and Canada, we intend to provide a similar service in the U.K. through our U.K. subsidiary, Skytech Capital Ltd (“Skytech”). Skytech is authorized and regulated by the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”) and carries out regulated activity in the U.K. The FCA has statutory objectives that direct how it operates. The FCA’s strategic objective is to ensure that the relevant markets function well. The FCA’s operational objectives are (a) securing an appropriate degree of protection for consumers, (b) protecting and enhancing the integrity of the U.K. financial system, and (c) promoting effective competition in the interests of consumers. The FCA regulates and supervises some or all of Skytech’s consumer credit activities. The FCA adopts a pre-emptive approach to supervision based on making forward-looking judgments about a firm’s business model, product strategy and how the business is run. The FCA has a range of supervisory tools available to it, including (but not limited to) meetings with management, desk-based reviews, making recommendations and on-site inspections. The laws and regulations applicable to the industry are subject to interpretation and change and we continue to monitor this on an ongoing basis.

U.S. federal consumer protection requirements

We must comply with various federal consumer protection regimes, both as a service provider to our originating bank partners and as a loan originator with respect to loans we may originate directly, including but not limited to the following laws and regulations:

the Truth-in-Lending Act and Regulation Z promulgated thereunder, which require certain disclosures to consumers regarding the terms and conditions of their loans and credit transactions;
Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, which prohibits unfair and deceptive acts or practices in or affecting commerce, and Section 1031 of the Dodd-Frank Act, which prohibits unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices (“UDAAP”) in connection with any consumer financial product or service;
the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (the “ECOA”) and Regulation B promulgated thereunder, which prohibit creditors from discriminating against credit applicants on the basis of race, color, sex, age, religion, national origin, marital status, the fact that all or part of the applicant’s income derives from any public assistance program, or the fact that the applicant has in good faith exercised any right under the Federal Consumer Credit Protection Act or any applicable state law. In addition to acts of intentional discrimination, the ECOA has been interpreted by federal regulators and courts to prohibit creditors from maintaining policies and practices that, while facially neutral, result in a disproportionate, adverse impact on applicants or consumers in protected groups. For this reason, a loan decisioning or credit scoring model must not use any variable that may be deemed a proxy for a protected characteristic such as race, ethnicity, or sex. Further, the variables used in the model must be supported by documented, legitimate business justifications where the model results in a disproportionate effect on applicants or consumers of certain demographic groups;
the Fair Credit Reporting Act (the “FCRA”), as amended by the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act, and Regulation V promulgated thereunder, which promote the accuracy, fairness, and privacy of information in the files of consumer reporting agencies;
the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, Regulation F promulgated thereunder, and the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, each of which provide guidelines and limitations concerning the conduct of certain creditors and third-party debt collectors in connection with the collection of consumer debts;
the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (the “GLBA”), which includes limitations on use and disclosure of nonpublic personal information about a consumer by a financial institution;
the Bankruptcy Code, which limits the extent to which creditors may seek to enforce debts against parties who have filed for bankruptcy protection;
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the Holder Rule, and equivalent state laws, which make Affirm or any other holder of a consumer credit contract include the required notice and become subject to all claims and defenses that a borrower could assert against the seller of goods or services;
the Electronic Fund Transfer Act and Regulation E promulgated thereunder, which provide disclosure requirements, guidelines, and restrictions on the electronic transfer of funds from consumers’ bank accounts;
the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act and similar state laws, particularly the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, which authorize the creation of legally binding and enforceable agreements utilizing electronic records and signatures;
the Military Lending Act and similar state laws, which provide disclosure requirements, interest rate limitations, substantive conduct obligations, and prohibitions on certain behavior relating to loans made to covered borrowers, which include both servicemembers and their dependents;
the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act and similar state laws, which allows active duty military members to suspend or postpone certain civil obligations so that the military member can devote his or her full attention to military duties; and
requirements pursuant to the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) enacted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including requirements relating to debt collection and credit reporting.

In addition, many states and local jurisdictions have consumer protection laws analogous to, or in addition to, the federal laws listed above, such as usury laws, state debt collection practices laws, and requirements regarding loan disclosures and terms, credit discrimination, credit reporting, money transmission, recordkeeping, the arranging of loans made by third-parties, and unfair or deceptive business practices. We are also subject to data protection laws and regulations, such as the EU General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), Canada’s Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, the U.K.’s Data Protection Act of 2018 and similar state laws such as the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”), which includes limitations and requirements surrounding the use, disclosure, and other processing of certain personal information about California residents.

We are also subject to regulation by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB") under the Dodd-Frank Act and other acts described herein, and we are subject to the CFPB’s enforcement authority with respect to our compliance with these requirements as a facilitator, servicer, acquirer, or originator of consumer credit. As such, the CFPB has in the past requested reports concerning our organization, business conduct, markets, and activities, and we expect that the CFPB will continue to do so from time to time in the future. In addition, we expect the CFPB to begin to supervise us in the immediate future. The CFPB’s supervision of us will enable it, among other things, to conduct comprehensive and rigorous examinations to assess our compliance with consumer financial protection laws, which could result in investigations, enforcement actions, regulatory fines and mandated changes to our business products, policies and procedures.

The CFPB, through its enforcement authority, could increase our compliance costs, potentially hinder our ability to respond to marketplace changes, impose requirements to alter products and services that would make them less attractive to consumers and impair our ability to offer products and services profitably. The CFPB is authorized to pursue administrative proceedings or litigation for violations of federal consumer financial laws. In these proceedings, the CFPB can obtain cease and desist orders (which can include orders for restitution or rescission of contracts, as well as other kinds of affirmative relief) and monetary penalties which, for 2022, range from $6,323 per day for minor violations of federal consumer financial laws (including the CFPB’s own rules) to $31,616 per day for reckless violations and $1,264,622 per day for knowing violations. The CFPB monetary penalty amounts are adjusted annually for inflation.

Also, where a company has violated Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act or CFPB regulations under Title X, the Dodd-Frank Act empowers state attorneys general and state regulators to bring civil actions for the kind of cease and desist orders available to the CFPB (but not for civil penalties). In May 2022, the CFPB issued an Interpretive Rule
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to clarify the authority of states to enforce federal consumer financial protections laws under the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 (“CFPA”). Specifically, the CFPB confirmed that (1) states can enforce the CFPA, including the provision making it unlawful for covered persons or service providers to violate any provision of federal consumer financial protection law; (2) the enforcement authority of states under section 1042 of the CFPA is generally not subject to certain limits applicable to the CFPB’s enforcement authority, such that States may be able to bring actions against a broader cross-section of companies than the CFPB; and (3) state attorneys general and regulators may bring (or continue to pursue) actions under their CFPA authority even if the CFPB is pursuing a concurrent action against the same entity. See CFPB Interpretive Rule regarding Section 1042 of the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 (87 FR 31940, May 26, 2022). If the CFPB or one or more state officials find that we have violated the foregoing laws, they could exercise their enforcement powers in ways that would have a material adverse effect on our business.

In addition, the Biden Administration has brought an increased focus on enforcement of federal consumer protection laws and appointed consumer-oriented regulators at federal agencies such as the CFPB, the OCC and the FDIC. It is possible that such regulators could promulgate rulemakings and bring enforcement actions that materially impact our business and the business of our originating bank partners. These regulators may augment requirements that apply to loans facilitated by our platform, or impose new programs and restrictions and could otherwise revise or create new regulatory requirements that apply to us (or our bank partners), impacting our business, operations, and profitability.

The federal regulatory framework applicable to online marketplaces such as our platform is evolving and uncertain, and additional requirements may apply to our business in the future. While we have developed policies and procedures designed to assist in compliance with these laws and regulations, no assurance is given that our compliance policies and procedures will be effective or will be adequate as laws change or are applied in a new manner.

Other requirements

We have policies and procedures designed to prevent the financing of illegal products. As part of our diligence process when vetting new partners, these policies and procedures instruct that we screen for products that violate the law or are on our prohibited business list in an effort to prevent risk to our business or harm to our consumers, merchants, and the payment system.

We are subject to compliance obligations related to U.S. anti-money laundering (“AML”) laws and regulations due, in part, to our partnership with our originating bank partners. With our international footprint, we are also subject to international AML laws and regulations. We have developed and currently operate an enterprise-wide AML program designed to prevent our network from being used to facilitate money laundering, terrorist financing, and other financial crimes, and to enable us to comply with all applicable anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing laws and regulations, including the Bank Secrecy Act and the Patriot Act. Our AML program is also designed to prevent our products from being used to facilitate business in certain countries or territories, or with certain individuals or entities, including those on designated lists promulgated by the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls and other U.S. and non-U.S. sanctions authorities. Our AML and sanctions compliance programs include policies, procedures, reporting protocols, and internal controls designed to identify, monitor, manage, and mitigate the risk of money laundering and terrorist financing, including the designation of an AML compliance officer to oversee the programs. We are also required to maintain this program under our agreements with our originating bank partners, and certain state regulatory agencies have intimated they expect the program to be in place and followed.

The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) prohibits offering, promising, authorizing or making payments to any foreign government official, government staff member, political party or political candidate to obtain or retain business abroad. Affirm is subject to the FCPA as well as similar laws in other jurisdictions in which we operate. We maintain anti-corruption policies and procedures and have a compliance program in place to ensure compliance with these laws and regulations.
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We collect, store, use, disclose, transfer, and otherwise process a wide variety of information, including personal information, for various purposes in our business, including to help provide for the integrity of our services and to provide features and functionality to our consumers and merchants. This aspect of our business, including the collection, storage, use, disclosure, transfer, processing, and protection of the information, including personal information, we acquire in connection with our consumers’ and merchants’ use of our services, is subject to numerous privacy, cybersecurity, and other laws and regulations in the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions, including the GLBA and its implementing regulations. We are subject to a variety of such laws, rules, directives, and regulations, as well as contractual obligations, both at the state and federal level, relating to the processing of personal information. Accordingly, we publish our privacy policies and terms of service, which describe our practices concerning the collection, storage, use, disclosure, transmission, processing, and protection of information. The regulatory framework for privacy and data protection worldwide is rapidly evolving and, as a result, implementation standards and enforcement practices are likely to continue to evolve for the foreseeable future. Legislators and regulators are increasingly adopting or revising privacy and data protection laws, rules, directives, and regulations that could have a significant impact on our current and planned privacy and data protection-related practices; our processing of consumer or employee information; and our current or planned business activities.

Furthermore, an increasing number of state, federal, and international jurisdictions have enacted, or are considering enacting, privacy laws, such as the CCPA, which became effective on January 1, 2020, and the EU GDPR, which regulates the collection, control, sharing, disclosure and use and other processing of personal information of data subjects in the EU and the European Economic Area. The CCPA gives residents of California expanded rights to access and delete their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used, and also provides for civil penalties for violations and a private right of action for data breaches. Meanwhile, the GDPR provides data subjects with greater control over the collection and use of their personal information (such as the “right to be forgotten”) and has specific requirements relating to cross-border transfers of personal information to certain jurisdictions, including to the U.S., with fines for noncompliance of up to the greater of 20 million euros or up to 4% of the annual global revenue of the noncompliant company. In addition, on November 3, 2020, California voters approved a new privacy law, the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”), which significantly modifies the CCPA, including by expanding consumers’ rights with respect to certain personal information and creating a new state agency to oversee implementation and enforcement efforts. Many of the CPRA’s provisions became effective on January 1, 2023. The CCPA, CPRA, GDPR, and any other applicable state, federal, and international privacy laws, may increase our compliance costs and potential liability.

Various regulatory agencies in the U.S. and in foreign jurisdictions continue to examine a wide variety of issues that are applicable to us and may impact our business. These issues include account management guidelines, anti-discrimination, consumer protection, identity theft, privacy, disclosure rules, electronic transfers, cybersecurity, and marketing. As our business continues to develop and expand, we continue to monitor the additional rules and regulations that may become relevant in order to maintain compliance with applicable law.

The legal and regulatory framework for privacy and security issues worldwide is rapidly evolving, and, although we endeavor to comply with these laws and regulations and our published policies and documentation, we may at times fail to do so or be alleged to have failed to do so. Any actual or perceived failure to comply with legal and regulatory requirements applicable to us, including those relating to privacy or security, or any failure to protect the information that we collect from our consumers and merchants, including personally identifiable information, from cyber-attacks, or any such actual or perceived failure by our originating bank partners, may result in, among other things, revocation of required licenses or registrations, loss of approved status, private litigation, regulatory or governmental investigations, administrative enforcement actions, sanctions, civil and criminal liability, and constraints on our ability to continue to operate.

Our originating bank partners also operate in a highly regulated environment, and many laws and regulations that apply directly to our originating bank partners are directly and indirectly applicable to us as a service provider to our originating bank partners.
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Intellectual Property

Intellectual property and proprietary rights are important to the success of our business. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret laws in the United States and other jurisdictions, as well as license agreements, confidentiality procedures, non-disclosure agreements, and other contractual protections, to establish and protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights, including our proprietary technology, software, know-how, and brand. However, these laws, agreements, and procedures provide only limited protection. As of June 30, 2023, we owned 14 registered trademarks and 18 trademark applications in the United States, 79 registered trademarks and 38 trademark applications in various foreign jurisdictions, and 12 issued patents, 51 pending patent applications in the United States, and 26 pending patent applications in various foreign jurisdictions.

Although we take steps to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights, we cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will be sufficient or effective to prevent the unauthorized access, use, copying, or the reverse engineering of our technology and other proprietary information, including by third-parties who may use our technology or other proprietary information to develop services that compete with ours.

See the section titled “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property and Platform Development” for a more comprehensive description of risks related to our intellectual property and proprietary rights.

Available Information

Our website address is www.affirm.com. Information found on, or accessible through, our website is not a part of, and is not incorporated into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Copies of our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are available, free of charge, on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such material electronically with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The SEC also maintains a website that contains our SEC filings. The address of the site is www.sec.gov.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors

Investing in our Class A common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should consider carefully the material factors, risks and uncertainties described below that make an investment in our Company speculative or risky, together with all of the other information in this Form 10-K, including the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes included elsewhere in this Form 10-K, before deciding whether to invest in shares of our Class A common stock. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of or that we currently deem immaterial may also become important factors that adversely affect our business. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, operating results, and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the market price of our Class A common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.

Risk Factor Summary

The risks and uncertainties to which our business is subject, include, but are not limited to, the following:

    If we are unable to attract additional merchant partners and/or commerce platforms (collectively “merchants” or “merchant partners,” as applicable), retain our existing merchant partners, and grow and develop our relationships with new and existing merchant partners, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

•    If we are unable to attract new consumers and retain and grow our relationships with our existing consumers, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

• We operate in a highly competitive industry, and our inability to compete successfully would materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

• We rely on a small number of merchant partners and e-commerce platforms, and the loss of any of these significant relationships would adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

• We may not be able to sustain our revenue and GMV growth rates, or our growth rate of related key operating metrics, in the future.

• The success of our business depends on our ability to work with originating bank partners to enable effective underwriting of loans facilitated through our platform and accurately price credit risk. We currently rely on Celtic Bank to originate substantially all of the loans facilitated through our platform. If our agreement with Celtic Bank is terminated, and we are unable to replace their commitments, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

• We rely on a variety of funding sources to support our business model. If our existing funding arrangements are not renewed or replaced or our existing funding sources are unwilling or unable to provide funding to us on terms acceptable to us, or at all, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, and future prospects.

• If loans facilitated through our platform do not perform, or significantly underperform, we may incur financial losses on the loans we purchase and we hold on our balance sheet, or lose the confidence of our funding sources.

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• To the extent we seek to execute acquisitions, strategic investments, alliances, divestitures or other transactions, we may be unable to achieve the strategic objectives of these transactions, and such transactions may be disruptive to our ongoing operations.

• The loss of the services of our Founder and Chief Executive Officer, as well as our inability to attract and retain highly skilled employees, could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

• We have a history of operating losses and may not achieve sustained profitability.

• Our quarterly results may fluctuate significantly and may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business.

• Litigation, regulatory actions and compliance issues could subject us to fines, penalties, judgments, remediation costs, requirements resulting in increased expenses and reputational harm.

• Further increases in market interest rates could have an adverse effect on our business.

• Our revenue is impacted, to a significant extent, by the general economy, the creditworthiness of the U.S. consumer and the financial performance of our merchants.

• If our collection efforts on delinquent loans are ineffective or unsuccessful, the performance of the loans would be adversely affected.

• Any significant disruption in, or errors in, service on our platform or relating to vendors, including events beyond our control, could prevent us from processing transactions on our platform or posting payments and have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

• Our ability to protect our confidential, proprietary or sensitive information, including the confidential information of consumers on our platform, may be adversely affected by cyber-attacks, employee or other internal misconduct, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins or similar disruptions.

• Our business is subject to extensive regulation, examination, and oversight in a variety of areas, all of which are subject to change and uncertain interpretation. Changing federal, state and local laws, as well as changing regulatory enforcement policies and priorities, including changes that may result from changes in the political landscape, may negatively impact our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

• If our originating bank partner model is successfully challenged or deemed impermissible, we could be found to be in violation of licensing, interest rate limit, lending, or brokering laws and face penalties, fines, litigation, or regulatory enforcement.

•     The dual class structure of our common stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with those stockholders who hold shares of our Class B common stock, including our executive officers, employees and directors and their affiliates. As a result of our dual class structure of our common stock, the trading price of our Class A common stock may be depressed.

For a more complete discussion of the material risks facing our business, see below.




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Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

If we are unable to attract additional merchant partners, retain our existing merchant partners, and grow and develop our relationships with new and existing merchant partners, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects would be materially and adversely affected, as could the market price of our Class A common stock.

We derive a significant portion of our revenue from our relationships with merchant partners and the transactions they process through our platform, and as more merchants are integrated into our network, there are more reasons for consumers to shop with us.
Our ability to retain and grow our relationships with our merchant partners depends on the willingness of merchants to partner with us. The attractiveness of our platform to merchants depends upon, among other things: the size of our consumer base; our brand and reputation; the amount of merchant fees that we charge; our ability to sustain our value proposition to merchants for customer acquisition by demonstrating higher conversion at checkout and increased AOV; the attractiveness to merchants of our technology and data-driven platform; services and products offered by competitors; and our ability to perform under, and maintain, our merchant agreements. Furthermore, having a diversified mix of merchant partners is important to mitigate risk associated with changing consumer spending behavior, economic conditions and other factors that may affect a particular type of merchant or industry.
Our continued success also is dependent on our ability to successfully grow and develop relationships with our merchant partners, particularly early-stage relationships with large e-commerce retailers such as Amazon. The pace of development, integration and rollout of these early-stage relationships is often unpredictable and is generally not within our control. Many of our agreements with our merchant partners are non-exclusive and lack any transaction volume commitments. Accordingly, these merchant partners may have, or may enter into in the future, similar agreements with our competitors, which could adversely affect our ability to drive the level of transaction volume and revenue growth that we seek to achieve or to otherwise satisfy the high expectations of our investors and financial analysts relating to those relationships. While some of our agreements with our merchant partners have provided for a period of exclusivity, those periods may be limited in duration, and we may not be able to negotiate extensions of those exclusivity periods on reasonable terms, if at all. If an exclusivity period with a merchant partner lapses, we may experience a decrease in GMV with the merchant partner, which may adversely impact our results of operations. In addition, our agreements with our merchant partners generally have terms that range from approximately 12 months to 36 months, and our merchants can generally terminate these agreements without cause upon 30 to 90 days’ prior written notice. We may, therefore, be compelled to renegotiate our agreements with merchant partners from time to time, possibly upon terms significantly less favorable to us than the terms included in our existing agreements with those merchant partners.

If we are unable to attract new consumers and retain and grow our relationships with our existing consumers, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

Our revenue is derived from consumer transaction volume, so our success depends on our ability to generate repeat use and increased transaction volume from existing consumers and to attract new consumers to our platform. Our ability to retain and grow our relationships with consumers depends on the willingness of consumers to use our platform and products. The attractiveness of our platform to consumers depends upon, among other things: the number and variety of merchants and the mix of products available through our platform; the manner in which consumers may use our products, including the ease of use relative to competitor products; our brand and reputation; consumer experience and satisfaction, including the trustworthiness of our services; consumer trust and perception of our solutions; technological innovation; and services and products offered by competitors. If we fail to retain our relationship with existing consumers, if we do not attract new consumers to our platform and products, or if we do not continually expand usage and volume from consumers on our platform, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.
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We operate in a highly competitive industry, and our inability to compete successfully would materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

We operate in a highly competitive and dynamic industry. Our technology platform faces competition from a variety of players, including those who enable transactions and commerce via digital payments. Our primary competition consists of: legacy payment methods, such as credit and debit cards, including those provided by card issuing banks such as Synchrony, J.P. Morgan Chase, Citibank, Bank of America, Capital One, Bread Financial and American Express; technology solutions provided by payment companies such as Visa and MasterCard; mobile wallets such as Apple and PayPal; other pay-over-time solutions offered by companies such as Block and Klarna; and new pay-over-time offerings by legacy financial and payments companies, including those mentioned above. Additionally, merchants are increasingly offering proprietary pay-over-time options to customers, and in some cases, these are presented parallel to our offerings at checkout. We expect competition to intensify in the future, especially as the pay-over-time industry has low barriers to entry, both as emerging technologies continue to enter the marketplace and as large financial incumbents increasingly seek to innovate the services that they offer to compete with our platform. Technological advances and the continued growth of e-commerce activities have increased consumers’ accessibility to products and services and led to the expansion of competition in digital payment options such as pay-over-time solutions. We expect that our pay-over-time offerings may increasingly be presented alongside competitor options at checkout.

Some of our competitors, particularly the credit issuing banks set forth above, are substantially larger than we are and have longer operating histories than we do, which gives those competitors advantages we do not have, such as a more diversified products, a broader consumer and merchant base, greater brand recognition and brand loyalty, the ability to reach more consumers, the ability to cross sell their products, operational efficiencies, the ability to cross-subsidize their offerings through their other business lines, more versatile technology platforms, broad-based local distribution capabilities, and lower-cost funding. In addition, because many of our competitors are large financial institutions that fund themselves through low-cost insured deposits and continue to own the loans that they originate, they have certain revenue and funding opportunities not available to us.

Increased competition could result in the need for us to alter the pricing we offer to merchants or consumers. If we are unable to successfully compete, the demand for our platform and products could stagnate or substantially decline, and we could fail to retain or grow the number of consumers or merchants using our platform, which would reduce the attractiveness of our platform to other consumers and merchants, and which would materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

We rely on a small number of merchant partners and e-commerce platforms, and the loss of any of these significant relationships would adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

As discussed in Part II, Item 7 – “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and as may be updated from time to time in the Company’s future periodic reports and other filings with the SEC, a single merchant partner or e-commerce platform, or a small number of merchant partners or e-commerce platforms, may represent a disproportionately large amount of our revenue and/or GMV during any given fiscal period. The loss of, or decrease in business with, any one of our significant merchant partner or e-commerce platform relationships, such as with Amazon or Shopify, due to a lapse in exclusivity or otherwise, would adversely affect our business. To the extent that any merchant partner or e-commerce platform constitutes a material portion of our total revenue or GMV for a fiscal period for which financial results are being reported in a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or Annual Report on Form 10-K, we will disclose the respective percentage contribution in our “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for that period.

The concentration of a significant portion of our business and transaction volume with a limited number of merchant partners or e-commerce platforms, or type of merchant or industry, exposes us disproportionately to any of those merchants choosing to no longer partner with us or choosing to partner with a competitor, to the economic performance of those merchants or industry or to any events, circumstances, or risks affecting such merchants or
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industry. In addition, a material modification in the production levels (including supply chain issues impacting component parts of products sold by our merchant partners) and/or financial operations of any significant merchant partner could affect the results of our operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

We may not be able to sustain our revenue and GMV growth rates, or our growth rate of related key operating metrics, in the future.

There can be no assurance that our revenue and GMV will continue to grow as they have in prior periods, and we expect our revenue and GMV growth rates to decline in future periods. Many factors may contribute to declines in our revenue and GMV growth rates, including increased competition, slowing demand for our products from existing and new consumers, transaction volume and mix (particularly with our significant merchant partners), lower sales by our merchants (particularly those with whom we have significant relationships), general economic conditions, a failure by us to continue capitalizing on growth opportunities, changes in the regulatory environment and the maturation of our business, among others. The revenue, GMV or key operating metrics for any prior quarterly or annual period should not be relied on as an indication of our future performance. If our revenue and GMV growth rates decline, we may not achieve sustained profitability, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and the price of our Class A common stock would be adversely affected.

The success and growth of our business depends upon our ability to continuously innovate and develop new products and technologies.

Our solution is a technology-driven platform that relies on innovation to remain competitive. The process of developing new technologies and products, such as Affirm Card with pay-over-time functionality, is complex, and we seek to build our own technology using the latest in artificial intelligence and machine learning (“AI/ML”), cloud-based technologies, and other tools to differentiate our products and technologies. In addition, our dedication to incorporating technological advancements into our platform requires significant financial and personnel resources and talent. Our development efforts with respect to these initiatives could distract management from current operations and could divert capital and other resources from other growth initiatives important to our business. We operate in an industry experiencing rapid technological change and frequent product introductions. We may not be able to make technological improvements as quickly as demanded by our consumers and merchants, or we may not be able to accurately predict the demand or growth of our technological investments, which could harm our ability to attract consumers and merchants and have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects. In addition, we may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services, including Affirm Card, as quickly as competitors or be successful in marketing these products and services to consumers and merchants. Moreover, the profile of potential consumers using our new products and technologies also may not be as attractive as the profile of the consumers that we currently serve or have served in the past, which may lead to higher levels of delinquencies or defaults than we have historically experienced. If we are unable to successfully and timely innovate and continue to deliver a superior merchant and consumer experience, we could experience reputational damage and decreased demand for our products and technologies and our growth, business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

Further, we use AI/ML in many aspects of our business, including fraud, credit risk analysis, and product personalization. The AI/ML models that we use are trained using various data sets. If the AI/ML models are incorrectly designed, the data we use to train them is incomplete, inadequate, or biased in some way, or we do not have sufficient rights to use the data on which our AI/ML models rely, the performance of our products, services, and business, as well as our reputation, could suffer or we could incur liability through the violation of laws, third-party privacy, or other rights, or contracts to which we are a party. For instance, discrepancies between the data signals used in the AI/ML model training data set and our online decisioning environment for our risk model may lead to incorrect decisions and errors in certain scenarios. Steps taken to prevent errors in the future may not be sufficient to prevent other discrepancies from arising in the future.
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Our failure to accurately predict the demand or growth of our new products and technologies also could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects. New products and technologies are inherently risky, due to, among other things, risks associated with: the product or technology not working, or not working as expected; consumer and merchant acceptance; technological outages or failures; increased regulatory scrutiny; and the failure to meet consumer and merchant expectations. As a result of these risks, we could experience increased claims, reputational damage, or other adverse effects, which could be material. The profile of potential consumers using our new products and technologies also may not be as attractive as the profile of the consumers that we currently serve or have served in the past, which may lead to higher levels of delinquencies or defaults than we have historically experienced. Additionally, we can provide no assurance that we will be able to develop, commercially market, and achieve acceptance of our new products and technologies. In addition, our investment of resources to develop new products and technologies and make changes or updates to our platform may either be insufficient or result in expenses that exceed the revenue actually generated from these new products. Failure to accurately predict demand or growth with respect to our new products and technologies could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

We currently rely on Celtic Bank to originate substantially all of the loans facilitated through our platform. If our relationship with Celtic Bank terminates, or if Celtic Bank were to suspend, limit, or cease its operations or loan origination activities for any reason, and we are unable to engage another originating bank partner on a timely basis or at all, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

As of the end of the second quarter of fiscal 2023, we relied on Cross River Bank and Celtic Bank to originate a majority of the loans facilitated through our platform and to comply with various federal, state, and other laws, with the balance of the loans facilitated on our platform being originated directly under our lending, servicing,
and brokering licenses in Canada and across various states in the United States through our consolidated subsidiaries. During the first half of fiscal 2023, we began accelerating the execution of an existing strategy of identifying and engaging new originating bank partners in order to diversify our sources of loan originations. In January 2023, we made the strategic decision to begin reducing the volume of loans originated by Cross River Bank on our platform while at the same time continuing our ongoing work to identify and engage new originating bank partners. Consequently, as of the end of the third quarter of fiscal 2023, Celtic Bank originates substantially all partner bank originated loans facilitated through our platform. As a result, the risks discussed in the paragraphs below relating to our reliance on Celtic Bank have increased and will remain as such unless and until we complete the process of engaging, onboarding and scaling our relationship with one or more new originating bank partners. The process of engaging, onboarding and scaling with new originating bank partners is inherently uncertain, and there can be no assurances as to when we will be able to complete that process. For example, although we engaged and onboarded a new originating bank partner during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2023, it may take longer than we expect before this new originating bank partner becomes able to originate a meaningful percentage of loans facilitated through our platform.

Celtic Bank handles a variety of consumer and commercial financing programs. The Celtic Bank loan program agreement has an initial three-year term, which is scheduled to expire in calendar year 2023 and will automatically renew in one-year terms thereafter unless either party provides notice of its intent not to renew. In addition, upon the occurrence of certain early termination events, either we or Celtic Bank may terminate the loan program agreement immediately upon written notice to the other party. Our Celtic Bank loan program agreement does not prohibit Celtic Bank from working with our competitors or from offering competing services, and Celtic Bank currently offers loan programs through other competing platforms. Celtic Bank could decide not to work with us for any reason, could make working with us cost-prohibitive, or could decide to enter into an exclusive or more favorable relationship with one or more of our competitors. In addition, Celtic Bank may not perform as expected under our loan program agreement. We could in the future have disagreements or disputes with Celtic Bank, which could negatively impact or threaten our relationship with other originating banks with whom we may seek to partner. For a further discussion of our relationship with Celtic Bank, particularly the regulations applicable to this relationship, see “Business — Regulatory Environment.

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If Celtic Bank were to suspend, limit, or cease its operations or loan origination activities for any reason, or if our relationship with Celtic Bank were to otherwise terminate for any reason (including, but not limited to, its failure to comply with regulatory actions), we may need to implement an additional substantially similar arrangement with another bank, obtain additional state licenses, or curtail our operations. If we need to enter into alternative arrangements with a different bank to replace our existing arrangement, we may not be able to negotiate a comparable alternative arrangement in a timely manner or at all. In addition, transitioning loan originations to a new bank may result in delays in the issuance of loans or, if our platform becomes inoperable, may result in the inability to facilitate loans through our platform. If we are unable to enter into an alternative arrangement with different banks to fully replace or supplement our relationship with Celtic Bank, we would potentially need to obtain additional state licenses to enable us to originate loans directly, as well as comply with other state and federal laws, which would be costly and time consuming, and there can be no assurances that any such licenses could be obtained in a timely manner or at all.

We rely on a variety of funding sources to support our business model. If our existing funding arrangements are not renewed or replaced or our existing funding sources are unwilling or unable to provide funding to us on terms acceptable to us, or at all, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, and future prospects.

Our high-velocity, capital efficient funding model is integral to the success of our commerce platform. To support this model and the growth of our business, we must maintain a variety of funding arrangements, including warehouse credit facilities, securities repurchase agreements, securitization trusts, and forward flow arrangements with a diverse set of funding sources. If we are unable to maintain access to, or to expand, our network and diversity of funding arrangements, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

We cannot guarantee that these funding arrangements will continue to be available on favorable terms or at all, and our funding strategy may change over time and depends on the availability of such funding arrangements. Disruptions in the credit markets or other factors, such as the current inflationary environment and rising interest rates, could adversely affect the availability, diversity, cost, and terms of our funding arrangements.

Since the beginning of March 2023, there have been public reports of instability at certain financial institutions. Despite the steps taken to date by U.S. and foreign agencies and institutions, the follow-on effects of this instability are unknown and may lead to disruptions to the businesses and operations of our funding sources. Although we are not substantially dependent on a single financing source, if multiple financing sources were to be unable to fulfill their funding obligations to us, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

In addition, our funding sources may reassess their exposure to our industry and either curtail access to uncommitted financing capacity, fail to renew or extend facilities, or impose higher costs to access our funding. Further, our debt financing and loan sale forward flow facilities are generally fixed term in nature, with term lengths ranging between one to three years, during which we have access to committed capital pursuant to such facilities. If our existing funding arrangements are not renewed or replaced or our existing funding sources are unwilling or unable to provide funding to us on terms acceptable to us, or at all, we would need to secure additional sources of funding or reduce our operations significantly. The availability and diversity of our funding arrangements depends on various factors and are subject to numerous risks, many of which are outside of our control.

The agreements governing our funding arrangements require us to comply with certain covenants. A breach of such covenants or other events of default under our funding agreements could result in the reduction or termination of our access to such funding, could increase our cost of such funding or, in some cases, could give our lenders the right to require repayment of the loans prior to their scheduled maturity. Certain of these covenants are tied to our consumer default rates, which may be significantly affected by factors, such as economic downturns or general economic conditions, that are beyond our control and beyond the control of individual consumers. In addition, our revolving credit facility contains (a) certain covenants and restrictions that limit our and our subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things: incur additional debt; create liens on certain assets; pay dividends on or
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make distributions in respect of their capital stock or make other restricted payments; consolidate, merge, sell, or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of their assets; and enter into certain transactions with their affiliates, and (b) certain financial maintenance covenants that require us and our subsidiaries to not exceed a specified leverage ratio, to maintain a minimum tangible net worth, and to maintain a minimum level of unrestricted cash while any borrowings under the revolving credit facility are outstanding.

In the future, we may seek to further access the capital markets to obtain capital to finance growth. However, our future access to the capital markets could be restricted due to a variety of factors, including a deterioration of our earnings, cash flows, balance sheet quality, or overall business or industry prospects, adverse regulatory changes, a disruption to or volatility or deterioration in the state of the capital markets, or a negative bias toward our industry by market participants. Due to the negative bias toward our industry, certain financial institutions have restricted access to available financing by participants in our industry, and we may have more limited access to institutional capital than other businesses. Future prevailing capital market conditions and potential disruptions in the capital markets may adversely affect our efforts to arrange additional financing on terms that are satisfactory to us, if at all. If adequate funds are not available, or are not available on acceptable terms, we may not have sufficient liquidity to fund our operations, make future investments, take advantage of acquisitions or other opportunities, or respond to competitive challenges and this, in turn, could adversely affect our ability to advance our strategic plans. In addition, if the capital and credit markets experience volatility, and the availability of funds is limited, third-parties with whom we do business may incur increased costs or business disruption and this could adversely affect our business relationships with such third-parties, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, and future prospects.

The success of our business depends on our ability to work with an originating bank partner to enable effective underwriting of loans facilitated through our platform and accurately price credit risk.

We believe that one of our core competitive advantages, and a core tenet of our platform, is our ability to work with an originating bank partner to use our data-driven risk model to enable the effective underwriting of loans facilitated through our platform and to accurately and effectively price credit risk. Any deterioration in the performance of the loans facilitated through our platform, or unexpected losses on such loans, would materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. Loan repayment underperformance would impact our interest-related and gain-on-sale income generated from loans we purchase from our originating bank partners, which are underwritten in accordance with the bank’s credit policy. Additionally, incremental charge-offs may affect future credit decisioning, growth of transaction volume, and the amount of provisions for underperforming loans we will need to take.
Traditional lenders rely on credit bureau scores and require large amounts of information to approve a loan. We believe that one of our competitive advantages is the ability of our risk model, deployed in accordance with our originating bank partners’ credit model and its underwriting guidelines when loans are made, to efficiently score and price credit risk within seconds at point-of-sale based on five top-of-mind data inputs. However, these inputs may be inaccurate or may not accurately reflect a consumer’s creditworthiness or credit risk. In addition, our ability to enable the effective underwriting of the loans we originate directly or purchase from our originating bank partners and accurately price credit risk (and, as a result, the performance of such loans) is significantly dependent on the ability of our proprietary, learning-based scoring system, and the underlying data, to quickly and accurately evaluate a customer’s credit profile and risk of default. The information we use in developing the risk model and price risk may be inaccurate or incomplete as a result of error or fraud, both of which may be difficult to detect and avoid.
Numerous factors, many of which can be unexpected or beyond our control, can adversely affect a customer’s credit risk and our risks. There may be risks that exist, or that develop in the future, including market risks, economic risks, and other external events, that we have not appropriately anticipated, identified, or mitigated, such as risks from inadequate or failed processes, people or systems, natural disasters, and compliance, reputational, or legal matters, both as they relate directly to us as well as that relate to third-parties with whom we contract or otherwise do business. Any changes to our risk model may be ineffective and the performance of our risk model may decline. If our risk model does not effectively and accurately model the credit risk of potential loans facilitated
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through our platform, greater than expected losses may result on such loans and, as a result, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
In addition, if the risk model we use contains errors or is otherwise ineffective, our reputation and relationships with consumers, our funding sources, our originating bank partners, and our merchants could be harmed, we may be subject to liability, and our ability to access our funding sources may be inhibited. Our ability to attract consumers to our platform and to build trust in our platform and products is significantly dependent on our ability to effectively evaluate consumer credit profiles and likelihoods of default. If any of the credit risk or fraud models we use contain programming or other errors or is ineffective or the data provided by consumers or third-parties is incorrect or stale, or if we are unable to obtain accurate data from consumers or third-parties (such as credit reporting agencies), the loan pricing and approval process through our platform could be negatively affected, resulting in mispriced or misclassified loans or incorrect approvals or denials of loans. This could damage our reputation and relationships with consumers, our funding sources, our originating bank partners, and our merchants, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.
Additionally, if we make errors in the development, validation, or implementation of any of the models or tools used in connection with the loans facilitated through our platform, and those that we purchase and securitize or sell to investors, those investors may experience higher delinquencies and losses. We may also be subject to liability to those investors if we misrepresented the characteristics of the loans sold because of those errors. Moreover, future performance of the loans facilitated through our platform could differ from past experience because of macroeconomic factors, policy actions by regulators, lending by other institutions, or reliability of data used in the underwriting process. To the extent that past experience has influenced the development of our risk model and proves to be inconsistent with future events, delinquency rates and losses on loans could increase. Errors in our models or tools and an inability to effectively forecast loss rates could also inhibit our ability to sell loans to investors or draw down on our funding arrangements, which could limit our ability to purchase (or directly originate) new loans and could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

If loans facilitated through our platform do not perform, or significantly underperform, we may incur financial losses on the loans we purchase, we hold on our balance sheet, or that are subject to certain risk sharing agreements, which may adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations as well as result in the loss of confidence of our funding sources.

In recent fiscal quarters, we have retained more loans on our balance sheet funded through our consolidated securitizations and warehouse lines. For these loans and any future loans facilitated through our platform that we purchase from our originating bank partners that may be held for investment on our balance sheet, we bear the entire credit risk in the event of consumer default with respect to these loans. In addition, non-performance, or even significant underperformance, of the loan receivables that we own could have an adverse effect on our business.

Additionally, our funding model relies on a variety of funding arrangements, including warehouse credit facilities, securitization trusts, and forward flow arrangements with a variety of funding sources. Any significant underperformance of the loans facilitated through our platform may adversely impact our relationship with such funding sources and result in their loss of confidence in us, which could lead to the termination of our existing funding arrangements, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

In addition, in connection with certain capital funding arrangements with third party loan buyers, we have entered into risk sharing agreements where we may be required to make a payment to the loan buyer if actual losses on the loans sold exceed agreed-upon expected losses, subject to a cap based on a percentage of the principal balance of loans sold. Refer to “Note 13. Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities” for additional information. If the loans subject to any existing or future risk sharing agreements underperform the expectations set forth in those agreements, we would be required to make payments under the agreements in proportion to the loan
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underperformance, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and our relationships with existing and prospective third party loan buyers.

Any acquisitions, strategic investments, alliances, divestitures and other transactions could fail to achieve strategic objectives, disrupt our ongoing operations or result in operating difficulties, liabilities and expenses, harm our business, and negatively impact our results of operations.

In pursuing our business strategy, we routinely conduct discussions and evaluate opportunities for possible acquisitions, strategic investments, joint ventures and other transactions. We have in the past acquired or invested in, and we continue to seek to acquire or invest in, businesses, technologies, or other assets that we believe could complement or expand our business. The identification, evaluation, and negotiation of potential acquisition or strategic investment transactions may divert the attention of management and entail various expenses, whether or not such transactions are ultimately completed. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in identifying, negotiating, and consummating favorable transaction opportunities. In addition to transaction and opportunity costs, these transactions involve large challenges and risks, whether or not such transactions are completed, any of which could harm our business and negatively impact our results of operations, including risks that:

the transaction may not advance our business strategy or may harm our growth (or profitability);
we may not be able to secure required regulatory approvals or otherwise satisfy closing conditions for a proposed transaction in a timely manner, or at all;
the transaction may subject us to additional regulatory burdens that affect our business in potentially unanticipated and significantly negative ways;
we may not realize a satisfactory return or increase our revenue;
we may experience difficulty, and may not be successful in, integrating technologies, IT or business enterprise systems, culture, or management or other personnel of the acquired business;
we may incur significant acquisition costs and transition costs, including in connection with the assumption of ongoing expenses of the acquired business;
we may not realize the expected benefits or synergies from the transaction in the expected time period, or at all;
we may be unable to retain key personnel;
acquired businesses or businesses that we invest in may not have adequate controls, processes, and procedures to ensure compliance with laws and regulations, including with respect to data privacy, data protection, and data security, and our due diligence process may not identify compliance issues or other liabilities;
we may fail to identify or assess the magnitude of certain liabilities, shortcomings, or other circumstances prior to acquiring or investing in a business, which could result in additional financial, legal, regulatory, or tax exposure and may subject us to additional controls, policies, procedures, liabilities, litigation, costs of compliance or remediation, or other adverse effects on our business, operating results, or financial condition;
we may have difficulty entering into new geographic territories;
we may be unable to retain the consumers, vendors, and partners of acquired businesses;
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there may be lawsuits or regulatory actions resulting from the transaction;
there may be risks associated with undetected security weaknesses, cyberattacks, or security breaches or incidents at companies that we acquire or with which we may combine or partner;
there may be local and foreign regulations applicable to the international activities of our business and the businesses we acquire; and
acquisitions could result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt.
Any delay or failure on our part to identify, negotiate, finance on favorable terms, consummate, and integrate any acquisition or other strategic investment opportunity could impede our growth.

Additionally, strategic investments in which we have a minority ownership stake inherently involve a lesser degree of influence over business operations. The success of our strategic investments may be dependent on controlling shareholders, management, or other persons or entities that may have business interests, strategies, or goals that are inconsistent with ours. Business decisions or other actions or omissions of the controlling shareholders, management, or other persons or entities who control companies in which we invest may adversely affect the value of our investment, result in litigation or regulatory action against us, and damage our reputation and brand.

Furthermore, we have in the past, and may in the future, also choose to divest certain businesses or product lines. If we decide to sell assets or a business, we may have difficulty obtaining terms acceptable to us in a timely manner, or at all. Additionally, we may experience difficulty separating out portions of, or entire, businesses, incur loss of revenue or experience negative impact on margins, or we may not achieve the desired strategic and financial benefits. Such potential transactions may also delay achievement of our strategic objectives, cause us to incur additional expenses, disrupt customer or employee relationships, and expose us to unanticipated or ongoing obligations and liabilities, including as a result of our indemnification obligations. Further, during the pendency of a divestiture, we may be subject to risks such as a decline in the business to be divested, loss of employees, customers, or suppliers and the risk that the transaction may not close, any of which would have a material adverse effect on the business to be divested and our retained business. If a divestiture is not completed for any reason, we may not be able to find another buyer on the same terms, and we may have incurred significant costs without the corresponding benefit.

Further expansion of our operations internationally will subject us to new challenges and risks.

We currently operate in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Poland and Spain (we do not currently facilitate loans in the United Kingdom, Poland or Spain) and may further expand our business internationally in the future. Managing new and existing international operations requires us to comply with new regulatory frameworks and additional resources and controls. International expansion subjects our business to risks associated with international operations, including:

•    adjusting the proprietary risk algorithms that we use to account for the differences in information available in different jurisdictions on consumers;
•    conformity of our platform with applicable business customs, including translation into foreign languages and associated expenses;
•    potential changes to our established business model;
•     the need to support and integrate with local vendors and service providers;
•    competition with vendors and service providers that have greater experience in the local markets than we do or that have pre-existing relationships with potential consumers and investors in those markets;
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•    difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations in an environment of diverse culture, laws, and consumers and merchants, and the increased travel, infrastructure, and legal and compliance costs associated with international operations;
•     compliance with multiple, potentially conflicting, and changing governmental laws and regulations, including banking, anti-money laundering, securities, employment, tax, privacy, and data protection laws and regulations, such as the EU General Data Protection Regulation;
•    compliance with U.S. and foreign anti-bribery laws, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act;
•     difficulties in collecting payments in multiple foreign currencies and associated foreign currency exposure;
•     potential restrictions on repatriation of earnings;
•    expanded compliance with potentially conflicting and changing laws of taxing jurisdictions where we conduct business and applicable U.S. tax laws as they relate to international operations, the complexity and adverse consequences of such tax laws, and potentially adverse tax consequences due to changes in such tax laws; and
•     regional economic and political conditions.
As a result of these risks, we may not be successful in managing our existing international operations, and our future international expansion efforts also may not be successful.

The loss of the services of our Founder and Chief Executive Officer could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Max Levchin, our Founder and Chief Executive Officer, is a valuable asset to us. Mr. Levchin has significant experience in the financial technology industry and would be difficult to replace. Competition for senior executives in our industry is intense, and we may not be able to attract and retain qualified personnel to replace or succeed Mr. Levchin. Failure to retain Mr. Levchin would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Our business benefits from our ability to attract and retain highly skilled employees.

Our future success is aided by on our ability to identify, hire, develop, motivate, and retain highly qualified personnel for all areas of our organization, in particular, a highly experienced sales force, data scientists, and engineers. Competition for these types of highly skilled employees is extremely intense, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Area. Trained and experienced personnel are in high demand and may be in short supply. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced employees have greater resources than we do and may be able to offer more attractive terms of employment. In addition, we invest significant time and expense in training our employees, which increases their value to competitors that may seek to recruit them. We may not be able to attract, develop, and maintain the skilled workforce necessary to operate our business, and labor expenses may increase as a result of a shortage in the supply of qualified personnel. If we are unable to maintain and build our highly experienced sales force, or are unable to continue to attract experienced engineering and technology personnel, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

In addition, in March 2020, we transitioned our entire staff to a remote working environment. Over time such remote operations may decrease the cohesiveness of our teams and our ability to maintain our culture, both of which contribute to our success. Additionally, a remote working environment may impede our ability to undertake new business projects, foster a creative environment, hire new team members, and retain existing team members. Such effects may adversely affect the productivity of our team members and overall operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

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Furthermore, we have at times undertaken workforce reductions to better align our operations with our strategic priorities. For example, to manage operating expenses in response to current macroeconomic conditions and ongoing business prioritization efforts, we took certain cost-saving measures, including a reduction of our workforce, in February 2023. There can be no assurance that these actions will not adversely affect employee morale, our culture, our ability to attract and retain employees and our ability to grow in accordance with our overall strategy. If we are not able to maintain our culture, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

We have a history of operating losses and may not achieve sustained profitability.

We incurred net losses of approximately $985.3 million, $707.4 million and $441.0 million for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021 respectively. As of June 30, 2023 and June 30, 2022, our accumulated deficit was approximately $2.6 billion and $1.6 billion, respectively. Our operating expenses may increase in the future as we seek to continue to grow our business, attract consumers, merchants, funding sources, and additional originating bank partners, and further enhance and develop our products and platform. As we expand our offerings to additional markets, our offerings in these markets may be less profitable than the markets in which we currently operate. Additionally, we may not realize the operating efficiencies we expect to achieve as a result of our acquisitions. These efforts may prove more expensive than we currently anticipate, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue sufficiently to offset these higher expenses.
In August 2023, we announced that we achieved adjusted operating income profitability in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2023. If we are not able to achieve sustained profitability due to the potential for operating expense increases, challenges in the macroeconomic environment, and factors discussed elsewhere in this Report, our reputation may be harmed and the market price of our Class A common stock could be materially and adversely impacted.

Our quarterly results may fluctuate significantly and may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business.

Our quarterly results, including revenue, expenses, GMV, consumer metrics, and other key performance metrics, have fluctuated significantly in the past and are likely to do so in the future. Accordingly, the results for any one quarter are not necessarily an indication of future performance. Our quarterly results are likely to fluctuate due to a variety of factors, some of which are outside of our control, and as a result, may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business. Fluctuations in quarterly results may adversely affect the price of our Class A common stock. In addition, many of the factors that affect our quarterly results are difficult for us to predict. If our revenue, expenses, GMV, consumer metrics, or key performance metrics in future quarters fall short of the expectations of our investors and financial analysts, the price of our Class A common stock will be adversely affected.

We have experienced in the past, and expect to continue to experience, seasonal fluctuations in our business.

We experience seasonal fluctuations in our business as a result of consumer spending patterns. Historically, our GMV has been the strongest during the second quarter of our fiscal year due to increases in retail commerce during the holiday season. Despite these higher GMV levels, in fiscal 2023 and 2022, we generated less in period revenue as a percentage of GMV during our second fiscal quarter due to the comparatively higher proportion of interest bearing loans originated in the latter half of the period, which typically results in lower merchant network revenue, which is recognized in period, and higher levels of interest income, which is recognized over a longer time horizon. We expect these seasonal patterns to continue in future periods, and any adverse events that occur during our second fiscal quarter could have a disproportionate effect on our financial results for the fiscal year.




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Negative publicity about us or our industry could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Negative publicity about us or our industry, including the transparency, fairness, responsible lending, user experience, quality, and reliability of our platform or point-of-sale lending platforms in general, effectiveness of our risk model, our ability to effectively manage and resolve complaints, our privacy and security practices, litigation, regulatory activity, misconduct by our employees, funding sources, originating bank partners, service providers, or others in our industry, the experience of consumers and investors with our platform or services or point-of-sale lending platforms in general, or use of loan proceeds by consumers that have obtained loans facilitated through our platform or other point-of-sale lending platforms for illegal purposes, even if inaccurate, could adversely affect our reputation and the confidence in, and the use of, our platform, which could harm our reputation and cause disruptions to our platform. Any such reputational harm could further affect the behavior of consumers, including their willingness to obtain loans facilitated through our platform or to make payments on their loans. As a result, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

Litigation, regulatory actions, and compliance issues could subject us to fines, penalties, judgments, remediation costs, and/or other requirements resulting in increased expenses and reputational harm.

Our business is subject to increased risks of litigation and regulatory actions as a result of a number of factors and from various sources, including as a result of the highly regulated nature of the financial services industry and the focus of state and federal enforcement agencies on the financial services industry in general and consumer financial services in particular.
In the ordinary course of business, we have been named as a defendant in various legal actions, including arbitrations and other litigation. In addition, we are currently a defendant in a putative securities class action, Kusnier v. Affirm Holdings, Inc., et al., and two related derivative actions, Quiroga v. Levchin, et al., and Jeffries v. Levchin, et al. For more information, see Note 8. Commitments and Contingencies of the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements.
While certain of our consumer agreements contain arbitration provisions with class action waiver provisions that may limit our exposure to consumer class action litigation, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in enforcing these arbitration provisions, including the class action waiver provisions, in the future or in any given case. Legislative, administrative, or regulatory developments may directly or indirectly prohibit or limit the use of pre-dispute arbitration clauses and class action waiver provisions. Any such prohibitions or limitations on or discontinuation of the use of, such arbitration or class action waiver provisions could subject us to additional lawsuits, including additional consumer class action litigation, and significantly limit our ability to avoid exposure from consumer class action litigation.
From time to time, we may also be involved in, or the subject of, reviews, requests for information, investigations, and proceedings (both formal and informal) by state and federal governmental agencies, both domestic and abroad, including banking regulators, the FTC, the CFPB, and the SEC, regarding our business activities and related disclosure practices and our qualifications to conduct our business in certain jurisdictions, which could subject us to fines, penalties, obligations to change our business and/or disclosure practices, and other requirements resulting in increased expenses and diminished earnings. Our involvement in any such matter also could cause harm to our reputation and divert management attention from the operation of our business, even if the matters are ultimately determined in our favor. Moreover, any settlement, or any consent order or adverse judgment, in connection with any formal or informal proceeding or investigation by a government agency, may prompt litigation or additional investigations or proceedings as other litigants or other government agencies begin independent reviews of the same or similar activities.
In addition, a number of participants in the consumer finance industry have been the subject of putative class action lawsuits; state attorney general actions and other state regulatory actions; federal regulatory enforcement actions, including actions relating to alleged unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices; violations of state
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licensing and lending laws, including state interest rate limits; actions alleging discrimination on the basis of race, ethnicity, gender, or other prohibited bases; and allegations of noncompliance with various state and federal laws and regulations relating to originating and servicing consumer finance loans. The current regulatory environment, increased regulatory compliance efforts, and enhanced regulatory enforcement have resulted in significant operational and compliance costs and may prevent us from providing certain products and services. There is no assurance that these regulatory matters or other factors will not, in the future, affect how we conduct our business and, in turn, have an adverse effect on our business. In particular, legal proceedings brought under state consumer protection statutes or under several of the various federal consumer financial services statutes subject to the jurisdiction of the CFPB and FTC may result in a separate fine for each violation of the statute, which, particularly in the case of class action lawsuits, could result in damages in excess of the amounts we earned from the underlying activities. See “— Risks Related to Our Regulatory Environment.

Determining our allowance for credit losses requires many assumptions and complex analyses. If our estimates prove incorrect, we may incur net charge-offs in excess of our reserves, or we may be required to increase our provision for credit losses, either of which would adversely affect our results of operations.

We maintain an allowance for credit losses at a level sufficient to estimate expected credit losses based on evaluating known and inherent risks in our loan portfolio. This estimate is highly dependent upon the reasonableness of our assumptions and the predictability of the relationships that drive the results of our valuation methodologies. Management has processes in place to monitor these judgments and assumptions, including review by our credit committee and our asset-liability committee, but these processes may not ensure that our judgments and assumptions are correct. The method for calculating the best estimate of expected credit losses takes into account our historical experience, adjusted for current conditions, and our judgment concerning the probable effects of relevant observable data, trends, and market factors. Changes in such estimates can significantly affect the allowance and provision for losses. It is possible that we will experience credit losses that are different from our current estimates. If our estimates and assumptions prove incorrect and our allowance for credit losses is insufficient, we may incur net charge-offs in excess of our reserves, or we could be required to increase our provision for credit losses, either of which would adversely affect our results of operations.

Increases in market interest rates have had and could continue to have an adverse effect on our business.

In March 2022 in response to elevated inflationary conditions, the U.S. Federal Reserve began raising the federal funds interest rate and continued to do so through July 2023. Increased interest rates have had, and may continue to have, an adverse impact on the spending levels of consumers and their ability and willingness to borrow money. Higher interest rates often lead to higher payment obligations, which may reduce the ability of consumers to remain current on their obligations and, therefore, lead to increased delinquencies, defaults, consumer bankruptcies and charge-offs, and decreasing recoveries, all of which could have an adverse effect on our business. Certain of our funding arrangements bear a variable interest rate. Given the fixed interest rates charged on the loans originated on our platform, in the event that variable interest rates rise across the market, our interest margin earned in these funding arrangements would be reduced. Dramatic increases in interest rates may make these forms of funding nonviable. In addition, certain of our loan sale agreements are repriced on a recurring basis using a mechanism tied to interest rates. To reduce our exposure to broad changes in prevailing interest rates, we maintain an interest rate hedging program which eliminates some, but not all, of the interest rate risk.

In connection with our securitizations, warehouse credit facilities, and forward flow agreements, we make representations and warranties concerning the loans financed pursuant to such agreements. If those representations and warranties are not correct, we could be required to repurchase certain of such loans. Any significant required repurchases would have an adverse effect on our ability to operate and fund our business.

In our asset-backed securitizations, warehouse credit facilities, and forward flow agreements, we make numerous representations and warranties concerning the characteristics of the loans we transfer and/or sell (depending on the type of facility), including representations and warranties that the loans meet certain eligibility requirements of those facilities and investors. If those representations and warranties are incorrect, we may be
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required to repurchase certain of the financed loans. Failure to repurchase so-called “ineligible loans” when required could constitute an event of default under our financing agreements and lead to the potential termination of the applicable facility. We can provide no assurance, however, that we would have adequate cash or other qualifying assets available to make such repurchases. Such repurchases could be limited in scope, relating to small pools of loans, or larger in scope, across multiple pools of loans. If we were required to make such repurchases and if we do not have adequate liquidity to fund such repurchases, it would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Our revenue is impacted, to a significant extent, by the general economy, the creditworthiness of the U.S. consumer and the financial performance of our merchants.

Our business, the consumer financial services industry, and our merchants’ businesses are sensitive to macroeconomic conditions. Economic factors such as interest rates, changes in monetary and related policies, market volatility, inflationary conditions, student loan obligations, consumer confidence, and unemployment rates are among the most significant factors that impact consumer spending behavior. Weak economic conditions or a significant deterioration in economic conditions, including the current inflationary environment and possibility of a recession, reduce the amount of disposable income consumers have, which in turn reduces consumer spending and the willingness of qualified consumers to take out loans. Such conditions are also likely to affect the ability and willingness of consumers to pay amounts owed under the loans facilitated through our platform, each of which would have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.
The generation of new loans facilitated through our platform, and the transaction fees and other fee income due to us associated with such loans, depends upon sales of products and services by our merchants. Our merchants’ sales may decrease or fail to increase as a result of factors outside of their control, such as the macroeconomic conditions referenced above, or business conditions affecting a particular merchant, industry vertical, or region. Weak economic conditions also could extend the length of our merchants’ sales cycle and cause consumers to delay making (or not make) purchases of our merchants’ products and services. The decline of sales by our merchants for any reason will generally result in lower credit sales and, therefore, lower loan volume and associated fee income for us.
In addition, if a merchant closes some or all of its locations, ceases its e-commerce operations, or becomes subject to a voluntary or involuntary bankruptcy proceeding (or if there is a perception that it may become subject to a bankruptcy proceeding), consumers may have less incentive to pay their outstanding balances on loans facilitated through our platform, which could result in higher charge-off rates than anticipated. Moreover, if the financial condition of a merchant deteriorates significantly or a merchant becomes subject to a bankruptcy proceeding, we may not be able to recover amounts due to us from the merchant.

We are subject to both natural and man-made events that may unexpectedly disrupt our operations and adversely impact our business.

Our systems and operations are vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, fires, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and other natural disasters (including those caused by climate change), power losses, telecommunications failures, strikes, health pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and similar events. For example, a significant natural disaster in the San Francisco Bay Area or any other location in which we have offices or facilities or employees working remotely, such as an earthquake, fire, flood, hurricane or tornado, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects, and our insurance coverage may be insufficient to compensate us for losses that may occur. In addition, strikes, wars, terrorism, and other geopolitical unrest could cause disruptions in our business and lead to interruptions, delays, or loss of critical data. If a natural disaster, power outage, connectivity issue, or other event occurs that impacts our employees' ability to work remotely, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected. We may not have sufficient protection or recovery plans in certain circumstances, such as a significant natural disaster, and our business interruption insurance may be insufficient to compensate us for losses that may occur.

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Borrowers may not view or treat their loans as having the same significance as other obligations, and the loans facilitated through our platform are not secured, guaranteed, or insured and involve a high degree of financial risk.

Borrowers may not view the loans facilitated through our platform as having the same significance as other credit obligations arising under more traditional circumstances.
Personal loans facilitated through our platform are not secured by any collateral, not guaranteed or insured by any third-party, and not backed by any governmental authority in any way. Therefore, if we purchase the loans from our originating bank partners after they are originated, we are limited in our ability to collect on these loans if a consumer is unwilling or unable to repay them. A consumer’s ability to repay their loans can be negatively impacted by increases in their payment obligations to other lenders under mortgage, credit card, and other loans resulting from increases in base lending rates or structured increases in payment obligations. If a consumer neglects his or her payment obligations on a loan facilitated through our platform or chooses not to repay his or her loan entirely, it will have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, future prospects, and cash flows.

If our collection efforts on delinquent loans are ineffective or unsuccessful, the performance of the loans would be adversely affected.

Our ability to collect on loans is dependent on the consumer’s continuing financial stability, and consequently, collections can be adversely affected by a number of factors, including job loss, divorce, death, illness, or personal bankruptcy. Furthermore, the application of various federal and state laws, including federal and state bankruptcy and debtor relief laws, may limit the amount that can be recovered on the loans. It is possible that a higher percentage of consumers will seek protection under bankruptcy or debtor relief laws as a result of the current inflationary environment, the possibility of a recession and market volatility. Federal, state, or other restrictions could impair our ability to collect amounts owed and due on the loans facilitated through our platform, reduce income received from the loans facilitated through our platform, or negatively affect our ability to comply with our current financing arrangements or obtain financing with respect to the loans facilitated through our platform.
In the event that initial attempts to contact a consumer are unsuccessful, certain delinquent loans may be referred to a collection agent that will service the loans using its own servicing platform. Further, if collection action must be taken in respect of a loan, the collection agent may charge additional amounts, which may reduce the amounts of collections that we receive.
Moreover, because our servicing fees in connection with the services we provide depend on the collectability of the loans facilitated through our platform, if there is an unexpected significant increase in the number of consumers who fail to repay their loans or an increase in the principal amount of the loans that are not repaid, we will be unable to collect our entire servicing fee for the loans facilitated through our platform for which we act as servicer, and our business, results of operations, financial condition, future prospects, and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
In addition, if a consumer defaults on a loan, we may be unsuccessful in our efforts to collect the amount of the loan. As such, our originating bank partners could decide to originate fewer loans through our platform. An increase in defaults precipitated by these risks and uncertainties could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

While we take precautions to prevent consumer identity fraud, it is possible that identity fraud may still occur or has occurred, which may adversely affect the performance of the loans facilitated through our platform.

There is risk of fraudulent activity associated with our platform, originating bank partners, consumers, and third-parties handling consumer information. Our resources, technologies, and fraud prevention tools may be insufficient to accurately detect and prevent fraud. We are obligated to repurchase the loans facilitated through our
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platform in certain cases of confirmed identity theft. The level of fraud related charge-offs on the loans facilitated through our platform could be adversely affected if fraudulent activity were to significantly increase.
We bear the risk of consumer fraud in a transaction involving us, a consumer, and a merchant, and we generally have no recourse to the merchant to collect the amount owed by the consumer. Significant amounts of fraudulent cancellations or chargebacks could adversely affect our business or financial condition. High profile fraudulent activity or significant increases in fraudulent activity could also lead to regulatory intervention, negative publicity, and the erosion of trust from our consumers and merchants, and could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, future prospects, and cash flows.

If we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or disclosure controls and procedures, we may be unable to report our financial results on a timely and accurate basis, and our business, operating results and market price of our Class A common stock may be adversely affected.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. The process of designing and implementing effective internal controls and disclosure controls is a continuous effort that requires us to anticipate and react to changes in our business and the economic and regulatory environment and to expend significant resources to maintain a system of internal controls that is adequate to satisfy our reporting obligations as a public company. In addition, testing and maintaining internal controls may divert our management’s attention from other matters that are important to our business.
If we are unable to establish and maintain appropriate internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures, it could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations on a timely basis, result in material misstatements in our consolidated financial statements and harm our operating results. Any failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or disclosure controls and procedures could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results, and cause a decline in the price of our Class A common stock. We also could become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.

Increased scrutiny from regulators, investors and other stakeholders regarding our environmental, social, governance, or sustainability responsibilities, strategy and related disclosures could result in additional costs or risks and adversely impact our reputation, employee retention, and willingness of consumers and merchants to do business with us.

Regulators, investor advocacy groups, certain institutional investors, investment funds, stockholders, consumers and other market participants have focused increasingly on the environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) or “sustainability” practices of companies. These parties have placed increased importance on the implications of the social cost of their investments. We may incur additional costs and require additional resources as we evolve our ESG strategy, practices and related disclosures. If our ESG strategy, practices and related disclosures, including the impact of our business on climate change, do not meet (or are viewed as not meeting) regulator, investor or other industry stakeholder expectations and standards, which continue to evolve, our brand, reputation and employee retention may be negatively impacted.

Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties

Our results depend on prominent presentation, integration, and support of our platform by our merchants.

We depend on our merchants, which generally accept most major credit cards and other forms of payment (which may include pay-over-time solutions offered by our competitors), to present our platform as a payment option and to integrate our platform into their website or in their store, such as by prominently featuring our platform on their websites or in their stores and not just as an option at website checkout. We may not have any recourse against merchants if they do not prominently present our platform as a payment option or if they more prominently
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present solutions offered by our competitors. In addition, as we add new merchants, it could take a significant amount of time for these merchants, particularly larger e-commerce retailers such as Amazon, to fully integrate our platform and for these merchants’ customers to accept our pay-over-time solution. The failure by our merchants to effectively present, integrate, and support our platform would have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

If our merchants fail to fulfill their obligations to consumers or comply with applicable law, we may incur remediation costs.

Although our merchants are obligated to fulfill their contractual commitments to consumers and to comply with applicable law, including in marketing our products, from time to time, they might not, or a consumer might allege that they did not. This, in turn, can result in claims or defenses against our originating bank partners and us, or a loan purchaser, or in loans being uncollectible due to the Federal Trade Commission’s Holder in Due Course Rule (“Holder Rule”), or equivalent state laws. The Holder Rule requires the inclusion of a specific notice in consumer credit contracts evidencing debts arising from purchase money loan transactions. The notice provides that the holder of the consumer credit contract is subject to all claims and defenses which the debtor could assert against the seller of goods or services obtained with the proceeds of the consumer credit contract. In those cases, we may decide that it is beneficial to remediate the situation, either through assisting the consumers to get a refund, working with our originating bank partners to modify the terms of the loan or reducing the amount due, making a payment to the consumer, or otherwise. Historically, the cost of remediation has not been material to our business, but we make no assurance that it will not be in the future.

Our vendor relationships subject us to a variety of risks, and the failure of third-parties to comply with legal or regulatory requirements or to provide various services that are important to our operations could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

We have significant vendors that, among other things, provide us with financial, technology, and other services to support our products and other activities, including, for example, credit ratings and reporting, cloud-based data storage and other IT solutions, and payment processing. The CFPB has issued guidance stating that institutions under its supervision may be held responsible for the actions of the companies with which they contract. Accordingly, we could be adversely impacted to the extent our vendors fail to comply with the legal requirements applicable to the particular products or services being offered.
In some cases, vendors are the sole source, or one of a limited number of sources, of the services they provide to us. For example, we are solely reliant on our agreement with our cloud computing web services provider for the provision of cloud infrastructure services to support our platform. Most of our vendor agreements are terminable by the vendor on little or no notice, and if our current vendors were to terminate their agreements with us or otherwise stop providing services to us on acceptable terms, we may be unable to procure alternatives from other vendors in a timely and efficient manner and on acceptable terms (or at all). If any vendor fails to provide the services we require, fails to meet contractual requirements (including compliance with applicable laws and regulations), fails to maintain adequate data privacy controls and electronic security systems, or suffers a cyber-attack or other security breach, we could be subject to CFPB, FTC and other regulatory enforcement actions, claims from third-parties, including our consumers, and suffer economic and reputational harm that could have an adverse effect on our business. Further, we may incur significant costs to resolve any such disruptions in service, which could adversely affect our business.
For example, certain installment loans are originated by our originating bank partners and then disbursed to merchants via single-use virtual cards facilitated through our partnership with an issuer processor. This issuer processor issues single-use virtual cards through its issuing bank partner which allow loans facilitated through our platform to be processed over the card network. Such loans facilitated through our platform can be used at merchants where we are not integrated at checkout, allowing consumers to complete purchases with virtual cards just as they would with a standard credit or debit card. In the event that our issuer processor becomes unable or
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unwilling to facilitate the disbursements to merchants and we are unable to reach an agreement with another vendor, such loans would no longer be able to be facilitated through our platform.

We partially rely on card issuers or payment processors. If we fail to comply with the applicable requirements of Visa or other payment processors, those payment processors could seek to fine us, suspend us or terminate our registrations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

We partially rely on card issuers or payment processors, and must pay a fee for this service. From time to time, payment processors such as Visa may increase the interchange fees that they charge for each transaction using one of their cards. The payment processors routinely update and modify their requirements. Changes in the requirements, including changes to risk management and collateral requirements, may impact our ongoing cost of doing business and we may not, in every circumstance, be able to pass through such costs to our merchants or associated participants. Furthermore, if we do not comply with the payment processors’ requirements (e.g., their rules, bylaws, and charter documentation), the payment processors could seek to fine us, suspend us or terminate our registrations that allow us to process transactions on their networks. The termination of our registration due to failure to comply with the applicable requirements of Visa or other payment processors, or any changes in the payment processors’ rules that would impair our registration, could require us to stop providing payment services to Visa or other payment processors, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Our business could be adversely affected by any unsoundness of our financial institution counterparties.

Since the beginning of March 2023, there have been public reports of instability at various financial institutions, with certain financial institutions being severely impacted. Financial services institutions are interrelated with our business as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty or other relationships. We routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including commercial banks, brokers and dealers, investment banks and other institutions. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of a default by a counterparty. In addition, our credit risk may be exacerbated when collateral cannot be foreclosed upon or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the credit or derivative exposure due. Any such losses could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property and Platform Development

Real or perceived software errors, failures, bugs, defects, or outages could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Our platform and our internal systems rely on software that is highly technical and complex. In addition, our platform and our internal systems depend on the ability of such software to store, retrieve, process, and manage immense amounts of data. As a result, undetected errors, failures, bugs, or defects may be present in such software or occur in the future in such software, including open source software and other software we license in from third-parties, especially when updates or new products or services are released.
Any real or perceived errors, failures, bugs, or defects in the software may not be found until our consumers use our platform and could result in outages or degraded quality of service on our platform that could adversely impact our business (including through causing us not to meet contractually required service levels), as well as negative publicity, loss of or delay in market acceptance of our products and services, and harm to our brand or weakening of our competitive position. In such an event, we may be required, or may choose, to expend significant additional resources in order to correct the problem.


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Any significant disruption in, or errors in, service on our platform or relating to vendors, including events beyond our control, could prevent us from processing transactions on our platform or posting payments and have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

We use vendors, such as our cloud computing web services provider, virtual card processing companies, and third-party software providers (including companies that provide our risk scoring models), in the operation of our platform. The satisfactory performance, reliability, and availability of our technology and our underlying network and infrastructure are critical to our operations and reputation and the ability of our platform to attract new and retain existing merchants and consumers. We rely on these vendors to protect their systems and facilities against damage or service interruptions from natural disasters, power or telecommunications failures, air quality issues, environmental conditions, computer viruses or attempts to harm these systems, criminal acts, and similar events. We may also be harmed if data, technology, or software becomes non-compliant with existing regulations or industry standards, becomes subject to third-party claims of intellectual property infringement, misappropriation, or other violation, or malfunctions or functions in a way we did not anticipate. If our arrangement with a vendor is terminated or if there is a lapse of service or damage to its systems or facilities, we could experience interruptions in our ability to operate our platform. We also may experience increased costs and difficulties in replacing that vendor and replacement services may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, on a timely basis, or at all. Any interruptions or delays in our platform availability, whether as a result of a failure to perform on the part of a vendor, any damage to one of our vendor’s systems or facilities, the termination of any of our third-party vendor agreement, software failures, our or our vendor’s error, natural disasters, terrorism, other man-made problems, security breaches, whether accidental or willful, or other factors, could harm our relationships with our merchants and consumers and also harm our reputation.
In addition, in the event of damage or interruption, our insurance policies may not adequately compensate us for any losses that it may incur. Our disaster recovery plan has not been tested under actual disaster conditions, and we may not have sufficient capacity to recover all data and services in the event of an outage. These factors could prevent us from processing transactions or posting payments on our platform, damage our brand and reputation, divert the attention of our employees, reduce our revenue, subject us to liability, and cause consumers or merchants to abandon our platform, any of which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Our ability to protect our confidential, proprietary, or sensitive information, including the confidential information of consumers on our platform, may be adversely affected by cyber-attacks, employee or other internal misconduct, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins, or similar disruptions.

Our business involves the collection, storage, use, disclosure, processing, transfer, and other handling (collectively, “processing”) of a wide variety of information, including personally identifiable information, for various purposes in our business, including to help support the integrity of our services and to provide features and functionality to our consumers and merchants. The processing of the information we acquire in connection with our consumers’ and merchants’ use of our services, particularly on our internet applications for consumers, is subject to numerous privacy, data protection, cybersecurity, and other laws and regulations in the United States and foreign jurisdictions. The automated nature of our business and our reliance on digital technologies may make us an attractive target for, and potentially vulnerable to, cyber-attacks, computer malware, computer viruses, social engineering (including phishing and ransomware attacks), general hacking, physical or electronic break-ins, or similar disruptions. In addition, our remote working environment may exacerbate these risks. While we and our vendors have taken steps to protect the confidential, proprietary, and sensitive information to which we have access and to prevent data loss, our security measures or those of our vendors could be breached resulting in the loss of, or unauthorized access to, our or our consumers’ data, our intellectual property, or other confidential, proprietary, or sensitive business information and could expose us to liability related to the loss of the information, time-consuming and expensive litigation, potential regulatory scrutiny and negative publicity.
As is common in our industry, and with technology-focused companies more broadly, unauthorized parties regularly attempt to gain access to our systems and facilities through various means, including, among others,
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hacking into our or our partners’ or consumers’ systems or facilities, or attempting to fraudulently induce our employees, partners, consumers or others into disclosing usernames, passwords, or other sensitive information, which may in turn be used to access our information technology systems and gain access to our or our consumers’ data or other confidential, proprietary, or sensitive information. In the past, such attempts have, at times, been successful but with minimal impact on or disruption to our business, and there is no guarantee that our continuous monitoring efforts will be effective in preventing similar or more impactful incidents in the future.

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, or if third parties are successful in claiming that we are infringing, misappropriating, or violating the intellectual property of others, we may incur significant expense and our business may be adversely affected.

Our ability to compete effectively is dependent in part upon our ability to obtain, maintain, protect, and enforce our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, including with respect to our proprietary technology, and to obtain licenses to use the intellectual property and proprietary rights of others. We rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, service marks, copyrights, trade secrets, domain names, and agreements with employees and third-parties to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. We also enter into agreements containing obligations of confidentiality with each party that has or may have had access to proprietary information, know-how, or trade secrets owned or held by us. Nonetheless, the steps we take to obtain, maintain, protect, and enforce our intellectual property and other proprietary rights may be inadequate. For example, our competitors and other third-parties may design around or independently develop similar technology or otherwise duplicate or mimic our services or products such that we would not be able to successfully assert our intellectual property or other proprietary rights against them. We cannot assure that any future patent, trademark, or service mark registrations will be issued for our pending or future applications or that any of our current or future patents, copyrights, trademarks, or service marks (whether registered or unregistered) will be valid, enforceable, sufficiently broad in scope, provide adequate protection of our intellectual property or other proprietary rights, or provide us with any competitive advantage.
Our trademarks, trade names, and service marks have significant value, and our brand is an important factor in the marketing of our services. We intend to rely on both registrations and common law protections for our trademarks. However, we may be unable to prevent competitors or other third-parties from acquiring or using trademarks, service marks, or other intellectual property or other proprietary rights that are similar to, infringe upon, misappropriate, dilute, or otherwise violate or diminish the value of our trademarks and service marks and our other intellectual property and proprietary rights. The value of our intellectual property and other proprietary rights could diminish if others assert rights in or ownership of our intellectual property or other proprietary rights, or in trademarks or service marks that are similar to our trademarks or service marks.
In addition, we cannot guarantee that we have entered into agreements containing obligations of confidentiality with each party that has or may have had access to proprietary information, know-how, or trade secrets owned or held by us. Moreover, our contractual arrangements may be breached or may otherwise not effectively prevent disclosure of, or control access to, our confidential or otherwise proprietary information or provide an adequate remedy in the event of an unauthorized disclosure. The measures we have put in place may not prevent misappropriation, infringement, or other violation of our intellectual property or other proprietary rights or information and any resulting loss of competitive advantage, and we may be required to litigate to protect our intellectual property or other proprietary rights or information from misappropriation, infringement, or other violation by others, which is expensive, could cause a diversion of resources, and may not be successful, even when our rights have been infringed, misappropriated, or otherwise violated. Our efforts to enforce our intellectual property and other proprietary rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims, and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, and if such defenses, counterclaims, or countersuits are successful, it could diminish or we could otherwise lose valuable intellectual property and other proprietary rights. Additionally, the laws of some foreign countries may not be as protective of intellectual property and other proprietary rights as those in the United States, and the mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property and other proprietary rights may be inadequate.
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Furthermore, third-parties may challenge, invalidate, or circumvent our intellectual property and proprietary rights, including through administrative processes or litigation. The legal standards relating to the validity, enforceability, and scope of protection of intellectual property and other proprietary rights are uncertain and still evolving. Our intellectual property and other proprietary rights may not be sufficient to provide us with a competitive advantage and the value of our intellectual property and other proprietary rights could also diminish if others assert rights therein or ownership thereof, and we may be unable to successfully resolve any such conflicts in our favor or to our satisfaction.

We may be subject to claims brought by third-parties for alleged infringement, misappropriation, or other violation of their intellectual property or other proprietary rights.

Our success depends, in part, on our ability to develop and commercialize our products and services without infringing, misappropriating, or otherwise violating the intellectual property or other proprietary rights of third-parties. We may receive claims or otherwise become involved in disputes from time to time concerning intellectual property or other proprietary rights of third-parties, which may relate to our own proprietary technology, or to technology that we acquire or license from third-parties, and we may not prevail in these disputes. Relatedly, competitors or other third-parties may raise claims alleging that service providers or other third-parties retained or indemnified by us, infringe on, misappropriate, or otherwise violate such competitors’ or other third-parties’ intellectual property or other proprietary rights. These claims of infringement, misappropriation, or other violation may be extremely broad, and it may not be possible for us to conduct our operations in such a way as to avoid all such alleged violations of such intellectual property or other proprietary rights. We also may be unaware of third-party intellectual property or other proprietary rights that cover or otherwise relate to some or all of our products and services.
Given the complex, rapidly changing, and competitive technological and business environment in which we operate, and the potential risks and uncertainties of intellectual property-related litigation, a claim of infringement, misappropriation, or other violation against us may require us to spend significant amounts of time and other resources to defend against the claim (even if we ultimately prevail), pay significant money damages, lose significant revenues, be prohibited from using the relevant systems, processes, technologies, or other intellectual property (temporarily or permanently), cease offering certain products or services, obtain a license, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or redesign our products or services or functionality therein, which could be costly, time-consuming, or impossible.
Some of the aforementioned risks of infringement, misappropriation or other violation, in particular with respect to patents, are potentially increased due to the nature of our business, industry, and intellectual property portfolio. For instance, it has become common in recent years for certain third-parties to purchase patents or other intellectual property assets for the sole purpose of making claims of infringement, misappropriation, or other violation in an attempt to extract settlements from companies such as ours. Relatedly, we do not currently have a large patent portfolio, which could otherwise assist us in deterring patent infringement claims from competitors, through our ability to bring patent infringement counterclaims using our own patent portfolio. In addition to the previously mentioned impacts of intellectual property-related litigation, while in some cases a third-party may have agreed to indemnify us for costs associated with intellectual property-related litigation, such indemnifying third-party may refuse or be unable to uphold its contractual obligations. In other cases, our insurance may not cover potential claims of this type adequately or at all, and we may be required to pay monetary damages, which may be significant.

Some aspects of our platform include open source software, and our use of open source software could negatively affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Aspects of our platform include software covered by open source licenses. The terms of various open source licenses have not been interpreted by United States courts, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our platform. In such an event, we could be required to re-engineer all or a portion of our technologies, seek licenses from third-parties in order to
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continue offering our products, discontinue the use of our platform in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished, or otherwise be limited in the licensing of our technologies, each of which could reduce or eliminate the value of our technologies and loan products. If portions of our proprietary software are determined to be subject to an open source license, we could also be required to, under certain circumstances, publicly release or license, at no cost, our products that incorporate the open source software or the affected portions of our source code, which could allow our competitors or other third-parties to create similar products and services with lower development effort, time, and costs, and could ultimately result in a loss of transaction volume for us. We cannot ensure that we have not incorporated open source software in our software in a manner that is inconsistent with the terms of the applicable license or our current policies, and we may inadvertently use open source in a manner that we do not intend or that could expose us to claims for breach of contract or intellectual property infringement, misappropriation, or other violation. If we fail to comply, or are alleged to have failed to comply, with the terms and conditions of our open source licenses, we could be required to incur significant legal expenses defending such allegations, be subject to significant damages, be enjoined from the sale of our products and services, and be required to comply with onerous conditions or restrictions on our products and services, any of which could be materially disruptive to our business.
In addition to risks related to license requirements, usage of open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software because open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement, misappropriation, or other violations, the quality of code, or the origin of the software. Many of the risks associated with the use of open source software cannot be eliminated and could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects. For instance, open source software is often developed by different groups of programmers outside of our control that collaborate with each other on projects. As a result, open source software may have security vulnerabilities, defects, or errors of which we are not aware. Even if we become aware of any security vulnerabilities, defects, or errors, it may take a significant amount of time for either us or the programmers who developed the open source software to address such vulnerabilities, defects, or errors, which could negatively impact our products and services, including by adversely affecting the market’s perception of our products and services, impairing the functionality of our products and services, delaying the launch of new products and services, or resulting in the failure of our products and services, any of which could result in liability to us, our vendors and service providers. Further, our adoption of certain policies with respect to the use of open source software may affect our ability to hire and retain employees, including engineers.

Risks Related to Our Regulatory Environment

We are subject to various international, federal and state consumer protection laws.

We must comply with various international, federal and state regulatory regimes, including those applicable to consumer credit transactions, such as, but not limited to, those described in “Business — Regulatory Environment — U.S. federal consumer protection requirements.”

In addition, the U.S., U.K. and other international governments, states, and provinces may pass new laws, or may amend existing laws, to further regulate the consumer finance industry or loans of the type provided through our platform, or to reduce the finance charges or other fees that may be imposed with respect to consumer loans. This could make the provision and collection of consumer loans more difficult or costly, which may negatively impact our business.
While we have developed policies and procedures designed to assist in compliance with these laws and regulations, no assurance is given that our compliance policies and procedures will be effective. Failure to comply with these laws and with regulatory requirements applicable to our business could subject us to damages, revocation of licenses, class action lawsuits, administrative enforcement actions, and civil and criminal liability, which may harm our business.

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Our business is subject to extensive regulation, supervision, examination, and oversight in a variety of areas, all of which are subject to change and uncertain interpretation. Changing international, federal, state, and local laws, as well as changing regulatory enforcement policies and priorities, including changes that may result from changes in the political landscape, may negatively impact our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

We are subject to extensive regulation, supervision, examination, and oversight by federal and state governmental authorities under U.S. federal and state laws and regulations. We are also regulated by many international and state regulatory agencies through licensing and other supervisory or enforcement authority, which includes regular examination by international and state governmental authorities. In addition, as we continue to expand our operations internationally, we may become subject to extensive regulation, supervision, examination, and oversight by additional international authorities.

We are required to comply with constantly changing international, federal, state, and local laws and regulations that regulate, among other things, the terms of the loans that we and our originating bank partners originate and the associated fees that may be charged. A change in these laws that enable our credit scoring and pricing model, including our ability to export interest rates across state lines, could have a material impact on our business model and financial position.

New laws or regulations could also require us to incur significant expenses and devote significant management attention to ensure compliance. In addition, our failure to comply (or to ensure that our agents and third-party service providers comply) with these laws or regulations may result in litigation or enforcement actions, the penalties for which could include: revocation of licenses; fines and other monetary penalties; civil and criminal liability; substantially reduced payments by borrowers; modification of the original terms of loans, permanent forgiveness of debt, or inability to, directly or indirectly, collect all or a part of the principal of or interest on loans; and increased purchases of loan receivables for loans originated by our originating bank partners and indemnification claims.

We are subject to the regulatory and enforcement authority of the CFPB as a facilitator, servicer, acquirer or originator of consumer credit. As such, the CFPB has in the past requested reports concerning our organization, business conduct, markets, and activities, and we expect that the CFPB will continue to do so from time to time in the future. In addition, we expect the CFPB to begin to supervise us in the immediate future. The CFPB’s supervision of us will enable it, among other things, to conduct comprehensive and rigorous examinations to assess our compliance with consumer financial protection laws, which could result in investigations, enforcement actions, regulatory fines and mandated changes to our business products, policies and procedures. For further discussion on the CFPB's enforcement authority, see “Business — Regulatory Environment — U.S. federal consumer protection requirements.”

In conducting an investigation, the CFPB or state attorneys general may issue a civil investigative demand requiring a target company to prepare and submit, among other items, documents, written reports, answers to interrogatories, and deposition testimony. If we become subject to such an investigation, the required response could result in substantial costs and a diversion of the attention and resources of our management. In addition, investigations and other regulatory actions could result in penalties and reputational harm to us and a loss of consumers participating in our platform, and our compliance costs and litigation exposure could increase if the CFPB, for instance, or other regulatory agencies enact new regulations, change regulations that were previously adopted, modify, through supervision or enforcement, past regulatory guidance, or interpret existing regulations in a manner different or stricter than have been previously interpreted, any of which could adversely affect our ability to perform. Further, in some cases, regardless of fault, it may be less time-consuming or costly to settle these matters, which may require us to implement certain changes to our business practices, provide remediation to certain individuals or make a settlement payment to a given party or regulatory body.

Further, we may not be able to respond quickly or effectively to regulatory, legislative, and other developments, and these changes may in turn impair our ability to offer our existing or planned features, products, and services and/or increase our cost of doing business. In addition, if our practices are not consistent or viewed as
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not consistent with legal and regulatory requirements, we may become subject to audits, inquiries, whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, or criminal or civil sanctions, all of which may have an adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition.

If our originating bank partner model is successfully challenged or deemed impermissible, we could be found to be in violation of licensing, interest rate limit, lending, or brokering laws and face penalties, fines, litigation, or regulatory enforcement.

A substantial number of the loans facilitated through our platform are originated through our bank partners and we rely on our originating bank partner model to comply with various federal, state, and other laws. If the legal structure underlying our relationship with our originating bank partners was successfully challenged, we may be found to be in violation of state licensing requirements and state laws regulating interest rates and other aspects of consumer lending. In the event of such a challenge or if our arrangements with our originating bank partners were to change or end for any reason, we would need to rely on an alternative bank relationship, find an alternative bank relationship, rely on existing state licenses, obtain new state licenses, pursue a federal charter, offer consumer loans, and/or be subject to the interest rate limitations of certain states.

If we were found to be operating without having obtained necessary international, state or local licenses, or if loans made by us under our lending licenses are found to violate applicable state or provincial interest rate limits or other provisions of applicable state or provincial lending and other laws, it could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

The application of some consumer financial licensing laws to our platform and the related activities it performs is unclear. In addition, licensing requirements may evolve over time, including, in particular, recent trends toward increased licensing requirements and regulation of parties engaged in loan solicitation and other regulated activities. If determined to be applicable to us, some licensing restrictions and limitations may prevent certain Affirm products being offered entirely. In addition, if we were found to be in violation of applicable state or provincial interest rate or licensing requirements by a regulating entity, a court or a state, federal, or local enforcement agency, or agree to resolve such concerns by voluntary agreement, we could be subject to or agree to pay fines, damages, injunctive relief (including required modification or discontinuation of our business in certain areas), criminal penalties, and other penalties or consequences, and the loans facilitated through our platform could be rendered void or unenforceable in whole or in part, any of which could have an adverse effect on the enforceability or collectability of the loans facilitated through our platform.

The highly regulated environment in which our originating bank partners operate could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Our originating bank partners are subject to increasingly demanding regulatory requirements. Federal regulation of the banking industry, along with tax and accounting laws, regulations, rules, and standards, may limit their operations significantly and control the methods by which they conduct business. In addition, compliance with laws and regulations can be difficult and costly, and changes to laws and regulations can impose additional compliance requirements. In particular, regulatory requirements affect our originating bank partners’ lending practices and investment practices, among other aspects of their businesses, and restrict transactions between us and our originating bank partners. These requirements may constrain the operations of our originating bank partners, and the adoption of new laws and changes to, or repeal of, existing laws may have a further impact on our business.
Furthermore, the regulatory agencies have extremely broad discretion in their interpretation of the regulations and laws and their interpretation of the quality of our originating bank partners’ loan portfolios and other assets. If any regulatory agency’s assessment of the quality of our originating bank partners’ assets, operations, lending practices, investment practices, or other aspects of their business changes, it may reduce our originating bank partners’ earnings, capital ratios, and share price in such a way that affects our business.

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Our use of vendors and our other ongoing third-party business relationships are subject to increasing regulatory requirements and attention.

We regularly use vendors and subcontractors as part of our business. We also depend on our substantial ongoing business relationships with our originating bank partners, merchants, and other third-parties. These types of third-party relationships, including with our originating bank partners, are subject to increasingly demanding regulatory requirements and oversight by federal bank regulators (such as the Federal Reserve Board, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation), the CFPB, state and international regulators.
It is expected that regulators will hold us responsible for deficiencies in our oversight and control of third-party relationships and in the performance of the parties with which we have these relationships. As a result, if our regulators conclude that we have not exercised adequate oversight and control over vendors and subcontractors or other ongoing third-party business relationships or that such third-parties have not performed appropriately, we could be subject to enforcement actions, including civil money penalties or other administrative or judicial penalties or fines, as well as requirements for consumer remediation.

Stringent and changing laws and regulations relating to privacy and data protection could result in claims, harm our results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects, or otherwise harm our business.

Compliance with current or future privacy and data protection laws (including those regarding security breach notification) affecting consumer and/or employee data to which we are subject could result in higher compliance and technology costs and could restrict our ability to provide certain products and services (such as products or services that involve us sharing information with third-parties or storing sensitive information), which could materially and adversely affect our profitability and could reduce income from certain business initiatives.
We publicly post policies and documentation regarding our practices concerning the processing of data. This publication of our privacy policy and other documentation that provide promises and assurances about privacy and security is required by applicable law and can subject us to proceedings and actions brought by data protection authorities, government entities, or others (including, potentially, in class action proceedings brought by individuals) if our policies are alleged to be deceptive, unfair, or misrepresentative of our actual practices. Although we endeavor to comply with our published policies and documentation, we may at times fail to do so or be alleged to have failed to do so.
Our failure, or the failure of any third-party with whom we work, to comply with privacy and data protection laws could result in potentially significant regulatory investigations and government actions, litigation, fines, or sanctions, consumer, funding source, bank partner, or merchant actions, and damage to our reputation and brand, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Complying with privacy and data protection laws and regulations may cause us to incur substantial operational costs or require us to change our business practices. We may not be successful in our efforts to achieve compliance either due to internal or external factors, such as resource allocation limitations or a lack of vendor cooperation. We have in the past, and may in the future, receive complaints or notifications from third-parties alleging that we have violated applicable privacy and data protection laws and regulations. Non-compliance could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities, consumers, data subjects, or others. We may also experience difficulty retaining or obtaining new consumers in these jurisdictions due to the legal requirements, compliance cost, potential risk exposure, and uncertainty for these entities, and we may experience significantly increased liability with respect to these consumers pursuant to the terms set forth in our engagements with them.
As we continue to expand our operations internationally, we may become subject to various foreign privacy and data protection laws and regulations, which may in some cases be more stringent than the requirements in the jurisdictions in which we currently operate. Because the interpretation and application of many privacy and data protection laws are uncertain, it is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our existing data management practices or the features of our products and services. If so, in
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addition to the possibility of fines, lawsuits, regulatory investigations, and other claims and penalties, we could be required to change our business activities and practices or modify our products or services, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business. Any claims regarding our inability to adequately address privacy and security concerns, even if unfounded, or to comply with applicable privacy and data security laws, regulations, contractual requirements, and policies, could result in additional cost and liability to us, damage our reputation, and adversely affect our business. Privacy and data security concerns, whether valid or not, may inhibit market adoption of our products and services, particularly in certain industries and jurisdictions. If we are not able to quickly adjust to changing laws, regulations, and standards related to the internet, our business may be harmed.

We have an obligation to comply with anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing laws, and failure to comply with this obligation could have significant adverse consequences for us.

We cannot provide any assurance that our programs and controls designed to enable us to comply with all applicable anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing laws and regulations will be effective to ensure compliance with all such anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism financing laws and regulations we are required to comply with, and our failure to comply with these laws and regulations could result in a breach and termination of our agreements with our originating bank partners or criticism by international or state governmental agencies, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

If we fail to comply with applicable requirements for our high-yield savings account product, our consumers’ deposits may not qualify for FDIC insurance and they may withdraw their funds, which could adversely affect our brand, business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

We offer an FDIC-insured, interest-bearing savings account, which is provided by Cross River Bank, on the Affirm app. Under the terms of our program agreement with Cross River Bank as well as the deposit account agreements between participating consumers and Cross River Bank, the savings account is opened and maintained by Cross River Bank. We act as the service provider to, among other things, facilitate communication between consumers and Cross River Bank via the Affirm app. We believe our savings account program, including applicable records maintained by us and Cross River Bank, complies with all applicable requirements for each participating consumer’s deposits to be covered by FDIC insurance, up to the applicable maximum deposit insurance amount. However, if the FDIC were to disagree (e.g., because we and Cross River Bank have not adequately evidenced participating consumers’ ownership of each account), the FDIC might not recognize consumers’ claims as covered by deposit insurance in the event Cross River Bank fails and enters receivership proceedings under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (“FDIA”). If the FDIC were to determine that consumers’ claims as covered by deposit insurance, or if Cross River Bank were to actually fail and enter receivership proceedings under the FDIA (regardless of whether the deposits are covered by FDIC insurance), participating consumers may withdraw their funds, which could adversely affect our brand, business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.
We also must abide by the terms of the deposit account program agreement with Cross River Bank, failure of which could lead Cross River Bank to terminate the savings account program. If Cross River Bank terminated our savings account program and we were unable to find another bank partner, we may have to close our savings account program, which could adversely affect our brand, business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Regulatory agencies and consumer advocacy groups are highly focused on potential discrimination resulting from the use of machine learning and "black-box" algorithms.

We face the risk that one or more of the variables included in our loan decisioning model may be deemed a proxy for a protected characteristic such as race, ethnicity, or sex in violation of the ECOA or other anti-discrimination laws, and therefore need to be revised or eliminated to ensure compliance with ECOA, which could result in lower approval rates or higher credit losses. We may also be required to support the variables used in our
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loan decisioning model with documented, legitimate business justifications in the event the model results in a disproportionate effect on applicants or consumers of certain demographic groups. In addition, our use of machine learning in our models could inadvertently result in a “disparate impact” on protected groups, which would require a review of the model’s underlying data and algorithms. Although we may review our models for potential disparate impact, we may be unable to identify and eliminate all practices or variables causing the disparate impact, resulting in residual fair lending risk.

Risks Related to our Class A Common Stock

The dual class structure of our common stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with those stockholders who hold shares of our Class B common stock, including our executive officers and directors and their affiliates. As a result of our dual class structure of our common stock, the trading price of our Class A common stock may be depressed.

Our Class B common stock has 15 votes per share, whereas our Class A common stock has one vote per share. Because the holders of our Class B common stock collectively hold significantly more than a majority of the combined voting power of our capital stock, such holders, acting together, control all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval. As a result, for the foreseeable future, holders of our Class B common stock will continue to have significant influence over the management and affairs of our company and over the outcome of all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger, consolidation or sale of substantially all of our assets, even if their stock holdings represent less than 50% of the outstanding shares of our capital stock. In addition, this may prevent or discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals or offers for our capital stock. Holders of our Class B common stock may have interests that differ from those of the holders of our Class A common stock and may vote in a way with which the Class A holders disagree or which may be adverse to the Class A holders' interests. This control may adversely affect the trading price of our Class A common stock.

Further, as of June 30, 2023, Max Levchin, our Founder, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, had voting control over approximately 35.2% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock. As a stockholder, Mr. Levchin is entitled to vote his shares, and shares over which he has voting control, in his own interests, which may not always be in the interests of our stockholders generally.

Transfers by holders of Class B common stock will generally result in those shares converting to Class A common stock, except certain transfers to entities, to the extent the transferor retains sole dispositive power and exclusive voting control with respect to the shares of Class B common stock, and certain other transfers described in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. In addition, all shares of Class B common stock will automatically convert into shares of Class A common stock upon the occurrence of certain events described in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. Conversions of Class B common stock to Class A common stock will have the effect, over time, of increasing the relative voting power of those holders of Class B common stock who retain their shares in the long term.
Our dual class structure may also depress the trading price of our Class A common stock due to negative perception by market participants and other stakeholders. Certain index providers have announced restrictions on including companies with multiple-class share structures in certain of their indexes. Similarly, several stockholder advisory firms have announced their opposition to the use of multiple class structures and may issue adverse voting recommendations for items on which we ask shareholders to vote. Any exclusion from indices or criticism of our corporate governance practices by stockholder advisory firms could result in a less active trading market for our Class A common stock.




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The market price of our Class A common stock has been and may continue to be volatile, which could cause the value of your investment to decline.

The market price of our Class A common stock has been and may continue to be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations. This market volatility, as well as general economic, market, and political conditions, could reduce the market price of shares of our Class A common stock despite our operating performance.
In addition, our results of operations could be below the expectations of public market analysts and investors due to a number of potential factors, including: variations in our quarterly or annual results of operations; additions or departures of key management personnel; the loss of an originating bank partner or key funding sources or merchants; adverse economic conditions resulting in decreased consumer demand; the growth and development of key merchant partner relationships, including our relationship with Amazon; and changes in our earnings estimates (if provided). Also, the publication of research reports about our industry, litigation and government investigations, changes or proposed changes in laws or regulations or differing interpretations or enforcement thereof affecting our business, adverse market reaction to any indebtedness we may incur or securities we may issue in the future, changes in market valuations of similar companies or speculation in the press or the investment community with respect to us or our industry, adverse announcements by us or others and developments affecting us, announcements by our competitors of significant contracts, acquisitions, dispositions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments, actions by institutional stockholders, and increases in market interest rates that may lead investors in our shares to demand a higher yield, could result in the significant decrease of the market price of shares of our Class A common stock.
Certain of our stockholders have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares that we may file for ourselves or our stockholders. In addition, as of June 30, 2023, we had stock options and restricted stock units outstanding that, if fully exercised or settled, would result in the issuance of an aggregate of 52,572,230 shares of our Class A common stock. All of the shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options and settlement of restricted stock units, and the shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans, are registered for public resale under the Securities Act. Any registration statement we file to register additional shares, whether as a result of registration rights or otherwise, could cause the market price of our Class A common stock to decline or be volatile.
These broad market and industry factors may decrease the market price of our Class A common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. The stock market in general has, from time to time, experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. In addition, in the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against these companies. We are subject to securities litigation, as described further in Note 8. “Commitments and Contingencies” of the accompanying notes to our audited condensed consolidated financial statements and incorporated by reference in Part I, Item 3 — Legal Proceedings. This litigation, and any other securities class actions that may be brought against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management’s attention and resources.

The issuance by us of additional equity securities may dilute your ownership and adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue additional shares of Class A common stock and rights relating to Class A common stock for the consideration and on the terms and conditions established by our board of directors in its sole discretion, whether in connection with acquisitions or otherwise. Any Class A common stock or securities convertible into shares of our Class A common stock that we issue from time to time, including in connection with a financing, acquisition, investment or under any equity incentive plans or otherwise that we may adopt in the future, will dilute your percentage ownership.
In the future, we may attempt to obtain financing or to further increase our capital resources by issuing additional shares of our Class A common stock or securities convertible into shares of our Class A common stock or
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offering debt or other securities. We could also issue shares of our Class A common stock or securities convertible into our Class A common stock or debt or other securities in connection with acquisitions or other strategic transactions. In addition, as we did when we initially formed our partnership with Shopify and when we entered into the Amended and Restated Installment Financing Services Agreement with Amazon, we may issue additional shares of our Class A common stock or securities convertible into shares of Class A common stock as a means of initiating, developing, strengthening or preserving key merchant relationships. Issuing additional shares of our Class A common stock or securities convertible into shares of our Class A common stock or debt or other securities may dilute the economic and voting rights of our existing stockholders and would likely reduce the market price of our Class A common stock both upon issuance and conversion, in the case of securities convertible into shares of our Class A common stock. Upon liquidation, holders of debt securities and preferred shares, if issued, and lenders with respect to other borrowings would receive a distribution on our distributable assets prior to the holders of our common stock. Debt securities convertible into equity securities could be subject to adjustments in the conversion ratio pursuant to which certain events may increase the number of equity securities issuable upon conversion. Preferred shares, if issued, could have a preference with respect to liquidating distribution or preferences with respect to dividend payments that could limit our ability to pay dividends to the holders of our common stock. Our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, which may adversely affect the amount, timing, and nature of our future offerings. As a result, holders of our Class A common stock bear the risk that our future offerings may reduce the market price of our Class A common stock and dilute their stockholdings in us.

Delaware law and certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws could make a merger, tender offer, or proxy contest difficult, thereby adversely affecting the market price of our common stock.

Our status as a Delaware corporation and the anti-takeover provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”) may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control by prohibiting us from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years after the person becomes an interested stockholder, even if a change of control would be beneficial to our stockholders. In addition, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that may make the acquisition of our company more difficult, including the following:

•    our dual class common stock structure, which provides holders of our Class B common stock with the ability to significantly influence the outcome of matters requiring stockholder approval, even if they own significantly less than a majority of the shares of our outstanding common stock;

•    our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors with staggered three-year terms and directors may only able to be removed from office for cause;

•     certain amendments to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation require the approval of 66 2/3% of the then-outstanding voting power of our capital stock;

•    our amended and restated bylaws provide that the affirmative vote of 66 2∕3% of the then-outstanding voting power of our capital stock, voting as a single class, is required for stockholders to amend or adopt any provision of our bylaws;

•     our stockholders may only take action at a meeting of stockholders and not by written consent;

•    vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by our board of directors and not by stockholders;

•     no provision in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws provides for cumulative voting, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates;

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•     only our chairman of the board of directors, our lead independent director, our chief executive officer, or a majority of the board of directors are authorized to call a special meeting of stockholders;

•     our amended and restated bylaws provide that certain litigation against us can only be brought in Delaware;

•    nothing in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation precludes future issuances without stockholder approval of the authorized but unissued shares of our Class A common stock;

•    our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes undesignated preferred stock, the terms of which may be established and shares of which may be issued, without the approval of the holders of our capital stock;

advance notice procedures apply for stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors or to bring matters before an annual meeting of stockholders; and

the number of director nominees a stockholder may nominate is limited to the number of directors to be elected at the annual meeting of stockholders.

These anti-takeover defenses could discourage, delay or prevent a transaction involving a change in control of our company. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for stockholders to elect directors of their choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions they desire, any of which, under certain circumstances, could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our Class A common stock, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our Class A common stock.

Our amended and restated bylaws contain exclusive forum provisions for certain claims, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees.

Our amended and restated bylaws, to the fullest extent permitted by law, provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of us, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a duty (including any fiduciary duty) owed by any of our current or former directors, officers, stockholders, employees or agents to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our current or former directors, officers, stockholders, employees or agents arising out of or relating to any provision of the DGCL or our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws, or (iv) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our current or former directors, officers, stockholders, employees or agents governed by the internal affairs doctrine of the State of Delaware. This provision does not apply to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act, or rules and regulations thereunder; however, the U.S. District Court for Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for actions brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act, or rules and regulations thereunder.
Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring or holding any interest in any of our securities is deemed to have notice of and consented to our exclusive forum provisions, including the federal forum provision. Additionally, our stockholders cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. These provisions may limit our stockholders’ ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum they find favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, and other employees and agents. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.


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Risks Related to Our Indebtedness

Servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial debt.

Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness, including our 0% convertible senior notes due 2026 (the “2026 Notes”), depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations.

We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversions of the 2026 Notes, to repay the 2026 Notes at maturity or to repurchase the 2026 Notes upon a fundamental change, and our future debt may contain limitations on our ability to pay cash upon conversion or repurchase of the 2026 Notes.

Holders will have the right to require us to repurchase their 2026 Notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change at a fundamental change repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the 2026 Notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid special interest, if any. In addition, upon conversion of the 2026 Notes, we will be required to make cash payments for each $1,000 in principal amount of 2026 Notes converted of at least the lesser of $1,000 and the sum of the daily conversion values as described in the indenture governing the 2026 Notes. However, we may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make repurchases of notes surrendered therefor or pay cash with respect to the 2026 Notes being converted. In addition, our ability to repurchase the 2026 Notes or to pay cash upon conversions of the 2026 Notes may be limited by law, by regulatory authority or by agreements governing our future indebtedness. Our failure to repurchase 2026 Notes at a time when the repurchase is required or to pay any cash payable on future conversions of the 2026 Notes would constitute a default under the indenture governing the 2026 Notes. A default under the indenture governing the 2026 Notes or the fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our future indebtedness. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase the 2026 Notes or make cash payments upon conversions thereof.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES.

We lease facilities under operating leases with various expiration dates through 2030. Our corporate headquarters are located in San Francisco, California. We also lease office space in New York, New York; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Chicago, Illinois; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Toronto, Ontario. We do not own any real property. We believe that our facilities are adequate to meet our current needs.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

Please refer to Note 8.  Commitments and Contingencies of the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements.

From time to time, we may be subject to other legal proceedings and claims in the ordinary course of business. We are not presently a party to any such other legal proceedings that, if determined adversely to us, would individually or taken together have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows. The results of any current or future litigation cannot be predicted with certainty, and
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regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources, and other factors.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information for Common Stock

Our Class A common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "AFRM". Our Class B common stock is not listed on any stock exchange nor traded on any public market.

Holders of Record

As of August 21, 2023, there were 291 stockholders of record of our Class A common stock. Because many of our shares of Class A common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these record holders. As of August 21, 2023, there were 207 stockholders of record of our Class B common stock.

Dividend Policy

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business, and we do not expect to declare or pay any dividends for the foreseeable future.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

We did not repurchase any of our equity securities during the fourth quarter of 2023.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
    
None.

Stock Performance Graph

This performance graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or be deemed “filed” with the SEC, for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act.

The graph below shows the cumulative total stockholder return on our Class A common stock with the cumulative total return on the Nasdaq Composite Index and the S&P North American Technology Index. The graph assumes (i) that $100 was invested at the market close on January 13, 2021, the date that our Class A common stock commenced trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, in each of our Class A common stock, the Nasdaq Composite Index, and the S&P North American Technology Index and (ii) reinvestment of gross dividends. The graph uses the closing market price on January 13, 2021 of $97.24 per share as the initial value of our Class A common stock. The stock price performance shown in the graph represents past performance and should not be considered an indication of future stock price performance.
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ITEM 6. [RESERVED]



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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”). You should review the section titled “Risk Factors” for a discussion of important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis. Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this Report to “Affirm,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” “us,” or similar terms refer to Affirm Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries. A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2023 compared to the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022 is presented below. A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022 compared to the fiscal year ended June 30, 2021 that are not included in this Form 10-K can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022.
Overview

We are building the next generation platform for digital and mobile-first commerce. We believe that by using modern technology, superior engineering talent, and a mission-driven approach, we can reinvent payments and commerce. Our solutions, which are built on trust and transparency, make it easier for consumers to spend responsibly and with confidence, easier for merchants to convert sales and grow, and easier for commerce to thrive.
Our point-of-sale solutions allow consumers to pay for purchases in fixed amounts without deferred interest, late fees, or penalties. We empower consumers to pay over time rather than paying for a purchase entirely upfront. This increases consumers’ purchasing power and gives them more control and flexibility. Our platform facilitates both true 0% APR payment options and interest-bearing loans. On the merchant side, we offer commerce enablement, demand generation, and customer acquisition tools. Our solutions empower merchants to more efficiently promote and sell their products, optimize their customer acquisition strategies, and drive incremental sales. We also provide valuable product-level data and insights — information that merchants cannot easily get elsewhere — to better inform their strategies. Finally, our consumer app unlocks the full suite of Affirm products for a delightful end-to-end consumer experience. Consumers can use our app to apply for installment loans, and upon approval, they can use the Affirm Card digitally online or in-stores to complete a purchase. Additionally, consumers can manage the pre- and post purchase split of Affirm Card transactions into loan, manage payments, open a high-yield savings account, and access a personalized marketplace.
Our Company is predicated on the principles of simplicity, transparency, and putting people first. By adhering to these principles, we have built enduring, trust-based relationships with consumers and merchants that we believe will set us up for long-term, sustainable success. We believe our innovative approach uniquely positions us to define the future of commerce and payments.
Technology and data are at the core of everything we do. Our expertise in sourcing, aggregating, and analyzing data has been what we believe to be the key competitive advantage of our platform since our founding. We believe our proprietary technology platform and data give us a unique advantage in pricing risk. We use data to inform our risk scoring in order to generate value for our consumers, merchants, and capital partners. We also prioritize building our own technology and investing in product and engineering talent as we believe these are enduring competitive advantages that are difficult to replicate. Our solutions use the latest in machine learning, artificial intelligence, cloud-based technologies, and other modern tools to create differentiated and scalable products.
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Year ended June 30,2023 vs 20222022 vs 2021
202320222021$%$%
(in thousands, except percentages)
Total revenue, net$1,587,985 $1,349,292 $870,464 $238,693 18 %$478,828 55 %
Total operating expenses2,788,847 2,215,340 1,254,131 573,507 26 %961,209 77 %
Operating loss$(1,200,862)$(866,048)$(383,667)$(334,814)39 %$(482,381)126 %
Other (expense) income, net211,617 141,217 (59,703)70,400 50 %200,920 (337)%
Loss before income taxes$(989,245)$(724,831)$(443,370)$(264,414)36 %$(281,461)63 %
Income tax benefit(3,900)(17,414)(2,343)13,514 (78)%(15,071)643 %
Net loss$(985,345)$(707,417)$(441,027)$(277,928)39 %$(266,390)60 %
Our Financial Model

Our Revenue Model
From merchants, we earn a fee when we help them convert a sale and facilitate a transaction. While merchant fees depend on the individual arrangement between us and each merchant and vary based on the terms of the product offering, we generally earn larger merchant fees on 0% APR financing products. For the years ended June 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021, Pay-in-4 represented 19%, 22%, and 11%, respectively, of total GMV facilitated through our platform and 0% APR Core loans represented 13%, 21%, and 32%, respectively, of total GMV facilitated through our platform.
From consumers, we earn interest income on the simple interest loans that we originate or purchase from our originating bank partners. Interest rates charged to our consumers vary depending on the transaction risk, creditworthiness of the consumer, the repayment term selected by the consumer, the amount of the loan, and the individual arrangement with a merchant. Because our consumers are never charged deferred or compounding interest, late fees, or penalties on the loans, we are not incentivized to profit from our consumers’ hardships. In addition, interest income includes the amortization of any discounts or premiums on loan receivables created upon either the purchase of a loan from one of our originating bank partners or the origination of a loan. For the years ended June 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021, interest bearing loans represented 68%, 58%, and 57% of total GMV facilitated through our platform, respectively.
In order to accelerate our ubiquity, we facilitate the issuance of virtual cards directly to consumers through our app, allowing them to shop with merchants that may not yet be fully integrated with Affirm. Similarly, we also facilitate the issuance of the Affirm Card, a debit card that can be used physically or virtually and which allows consumers to link a bank account to pay in full, or pay later by accessing credit through the Affirm App. When these cards are used over established card networks, we earn a portion of the interchange fee from the transaction.
Our Loan Origination and Servicing Model
When a consumer applies for a loan through our platform, the loan is underwritten using our proprietary risk model. Once approved for the loan, the consumer then selects their preferred repayment option. A portion of these loans are funded and issued by our originating bank partners, which include Cross River Bank, an FDIC-insured New Jersey state-chartered bank, and Celtic Bank, an FDIC-insured Utah state-chartered industrial bank. These partnerships allow us to benefit from our partners’ ability to originate loans under their banking licenses while complying with various federal, state, and other laws. Under this arrangement, we must comply with our originating bank partners' credit policies and underwriting procedures, and our originating bank partners maintain ultimate authority to decide whether to originate a loan or not. When an originating bank partner originates a loan, it funds the loan through its own funding sources and may subsequently offer and sell the loan to us. Pursuant to our agreements with these partners, we are obligated to purchase the loans facilitated through our platform that such partner offers us and our obligation is secured by cash deposits. To date, we have purchased all of the loans facilitated through our platform and originated by our originating bank partners. When we purchase a loan from an
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originating bank partner, the purchase price is equal to the outstanding principal balance of the loan, plus a fee and any accrued interest. The originating bank partner also retains an interest in the loans purchased by us through a loan performance fee that is payable by us on the aggregate principal amount of a loan that is paid by a consumer. See Note 13. Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities for more information on the performance fee liability.
We are also able to originate loans directly under our lending, servicing, and brokering licenses in Canada and across several states in the U.S. through our consolidated subsidiaries. We directly originated approximately $3.7 billion, or 18%, and $3.3 billion, or 21%, of loans for the years ended June 30, 2023 and June 30, 2022, respectively.
We act as the servicer on all loans that we originate directly or purchase from our originating bank partners and earn a servicing fee on loans we sell to our funding sources. In the normal course of business, we do not sell the servicing rights on any of the loans. To allow for flexible staffing to support overflow and seasonal traffic, we partner with several sub-servicers to manage customer care, first priority collections, and third-party collections in accordance with our policies and procedures.
Factors Affecting Our Performance
Our performance has been and may continue to be affected by many factors, including those identified below, as well as the factors discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” in this Form 10-K.
Expanding our Network, Diversity, and Mix of Funding Relationships
Our capital efficient funding model is integral to the success of our platform. As we scale the number of transactions on our network and grow GMV, we maintain a variety of funding relationships in order to support our network. Our diversified funding relationships include warehouse credit facilities, securitization trusts, forward flow arrangements, and partnerships with banks. Given the short duration and strong performance of our assets, funding can be recycled quickly, resulting in a high-velocity, capital efficient funding model. While we have continued to improve our equity capital efficiency, the percentage of our equity capital as a percentage of our total platform portfolio increased from approximately 3% as of June 30, 2022, to approximately 5% as of June 30, 2023. The increase was due to an increase in on-balance sheet loans, and a lower percentage of our on balance sheet loans funded through securitizations, which generally require a lower percentage of equity capital compared to our warehouse credit facilities. This shift in our funding mix in response to the current market environment given our ability to allocate loans to warehouse credit facilities with better economic terms at a given time to support the growth of our business while optimizing cost of funds. The mix of on-balance sheet and off-balance sheet funding is a function of how we choose to allocate loan volume, which is determined by the economic arrangements and supply of capital available to us, both of which may also impact our results in any given period.

Mix of Business on Our Platform
The shifts in volume among merchants and the products that our merchants offer and our consumers purchase in any period affects our operating results. These mix impacts GMV, revenue, our financial results, and our key operating metric performance for that period. Differences in loan product mix result in varying loan durations, APR, and mix of 0% APR and interest-bearing financings.
Product and economic terms of commercial agreements vary among our merchants. For example, our low average order value (“AOV”) products generally benefit from shorter duration, but also have lower revenue as a percentage of GMV when compared to high AOV products. Merchant mix shifts are driven in part by the products offered by the merchant, the economic terms negotiated with the merchant, merchant-side activity relating to the marketing of their products, whether or not the merchant is fully integrated within our network, and general economic conditions affecting consumer demand. Our revenue as a percentage of GMV in any given period varies across products. As such, as we continue to expand our network to include more merchants, revenue as a percentage of GMV may vary. In addition, our commercial agreement with Shopify to offer Shop Pay Installments powered by Affirm and our Pay-in-4 offering may continue to impact the mix of our shorter duration, low AOV products.
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Differences in the mix of high versus low AOV may also impact our results. For example, we expect that transactions per active consumer may increase while revenue as a percentage of GMV may decline in the medium term to the extent that a greater portion of our GMV comes from Pay-in-4 and other low-AOV offerings.
Seasonality
We experience seasonal fluctuations in our business as a result of consumer spending patterns. Historically, our GMV has been the strongest during the second quarter of our fiscal year due to increases in retail commerce during the holiday season. Despite these higher GMV levels, in fiscal 2023 and 2022, we generated less in period revenue as a percentage of GMV during our second fiscal quarter due to the comparatively higher proportion of interest bearing loans originated in the latter half of the period, which typically results in lower merchant network revenue, which is recognized in period, and higher levels of interest income, which is recognized over a longer time horizon. We expect these seasonal patterns to continue in future periods, and any adverse events that occur during our second fiscal quarter could have a disproportionate effect on our financial results for the fiscal year.

Macroeconomic Environment
We regularly monitor the direct and indirect impacts of the current macroeconomic conditions on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. During fiscal 2023, the macroeconomic environment presented a number of challenges to our business. In response to continued inflationary pressure, the U.S. Federal Reserve raised, and may continue to raise, the federal funds interest rate. Simultaneously, economic uncertainty and the prospect of economic recession impacted consumer spending. These developments have affected, and may continue to affect, our business and results of operations in the following ways:
Deceleration in consumer demand: We have experienced a deceleration in consumer demand for discretionary items, which has adversely impacted GMV growth.
Increased borrowing costs: Our costs of borrowing have increased, resulting in higher transaction costs.
Volatile capital markets: In response to volatile capital markets conditions, we have retained more loans on our balance sheet funded through our consolidated securitizations and warehouse lines in recent fiscal quarters. Retaining loans on our balance sheet leads to the recognition of interest income over the life of the loan, effectively delaying the revenue that would have been realized upon the loan’s sale.
Managing delinquency rates: We are continuously optimizing our underwriting to manage delinquency rates. While these actions have adversely affected our GMV growth rates during fiscal 2023, as of June 30, 2023, our 30-day delinquency rates for monthly installment loans were comparable to, and our allowance rates for loan losses improved over, those experienced as of June 30, 2022.
Macroeconomic factors can also cause fluctuations of available capital in our lending marketplace due to shifts in the risk preferences of our lending partners and institutional investors or for other reasons. For example, since the beginning of March 2023, there have been public reports of instability at certain financial institutions. Despite the steps taken to date by U.S. and foreign agencies and institutions, the follow-on effects of this instability are unknown and may lead to disruptions to the businesses and operations of our funding sources.
Restructuring Plan
On February 8, 2023, we committed to a restructuring plan designed to manage our operating expenses in response to macroeconomic conditions and ongoing business prioritization efforts. As part of the plan, we reduced our workforce by approximately 500 employees, representing approximately 19% of our employees at that time, and vacated a portion of our leased San Francisco office. For further information, refer to Note 16. Restructuring and other to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-K.


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Pricing Initiatives
We have begun implementing certain pricing initiatives that have the dual purpose of offsetting our increased funding costs while also enabling us to responsibly extend access to credit to a larger number of consumers. These pricing initiatives include the following:
increasing the maximum APR for loans facilitated on our platform from 30% to 36%;
increasing the merchant fees payable by some merchants on 0% APR financing products;
expanding the use of down payments and requested loan amounts;
offering merchant-subsidized low APR loans (4% to 9.99%) as an alternative to monthly 0% APR programs; and
shortening loan lengths and minimum order sizes for monthly 0% APR programs.
Regulatory Developments
We are subject to the regulatory and enforcement authority of the Consumer Financial Protection Board (the “CFPB”) as a facilitator, servicer, acquirer or originator of consumer credit. As such, the CFPB has in the past requested reports concerning our organization, business conduct, markets, and activities, and we expect that the CFPB will continue to do so from time to time in the future.
In addition, we expect the CFPB to begin to supervise us in the immediate future. The CFPB’s supervision of us will enable it, among other things, to conduct comprehensive and rigorous examinations to assess our compliance with consumer financial protection laws, which could result in investigations, enforcement actions, regulatory fines and mandated changes to our business products, policies and procedures.
Key Operating Metrics

We focus on several key operating metrics to measure the performance of our business and help determine our strategic direction. In addition to revenue, net loss, and other results under U.S. GAAP, the following tables set forth key operating metrics we use to evaluate our business.
Year ended June 30,
202320222021
(in billions)
Gross merchandise volume (GMV)$20.2 $15.5 $8.3 
GMV
We measure GMV to assess the volume of transactions that take place on our platform. We define GMV as the total dollar amount of all transactions on the Affirm platform during the applicable period, net of refunds. GMV does not represent revenue earned by us; however, it is an indicator of the success of our merchants and the strength of our platform.
For the year ended June 30, 2023, GMV was $20.2 billion, an increase of approximately 30% from $15.5 billion for the year ended June 30, 2022 and an increase of approximately 144% from $8.3 billion for the year ended June 30, 2021. Overall, the increase in GMV was primarily driven by the expansion of our active merchant base and increases in active consumers and the average number of transactions per consumer.
For the years ended June 30, 2023, 2022, and 2021, our top five merchants, including our largest platform partner represented approximately 42%, 32%, and 30%, respectively, of total GMV. GMV attributable to Amazon increased during each period but represented less than 20% of total GMV for all such periods. No other single merchant or platform partner exceeded 20% of total GMV for the year ended June 30, 2023.
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June 30, 2023June 30, 2022June 30, 2021
(in thousands, except per consumer data)
Active consumers16,469 13,980 7,121 
Transactions per active consumer (x)3.9 3.02.3
Active Consumers
We assess consumer adoption and engagement by the number of active consumers across our platform. Active consumers are the primary measure of the size of our network. We define an active consumer as a consumer who engages in at least one transaction on our platform during the 12 months prior to the measurement date.
As of June 30, 2023, we had approximately 16.5 million active consumers inclusive of 1.0 million active consumers who only transacted on Returnly, which represented an increase of 18% compared to approximately 14.0 million as of June 30, 2022, and 131% compared to approximately 7.1 million as of June 30, 2021. The increase was primarily due to a high retention rate of existing consumers and the acquisition of new consumers through an expanding active merchant base.
Transactions per Active Consumer
We believe the value of our network is amplified with greater consumer engagement and repeat usage, highlighted by increased transactions per active consumer. Transactions per active consumer is defined as the average number of transactions that an active consumer has conducted on our platform during the 12 months prior to the measurement date.
As of June 30, 2023, we had approximately 3.9 transactions per active consumer, an increase of 30% compared to June 30, 2022 and an increase of 70% compared to June 30, 2021. This was primarily due to platform growth and a higher frequency of repeat users driven by consumer engagement.
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Results of Operations

The following tables set forth selected consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss data for each of the periods presented:
Year ended June 30,2023 vs 20222022 vs 2021
202320222021$ Change% Change$ Change% Change
(in thousands)
Revenue
Merchant network revenue$507,600 $458,511 $379,551 $49,089 11 %$78,960 21 %
Card network revenue119,338 100,696 49,851 18,642 19 %50,845 102 %
Total network revenue626,938 559,207 429,402 67,731 12 %129,805 30 %
Interest income (1)
685,217 527,880 326,417 157,337 30 %201,463 62 %
Gain on sales of loans (1)
188,341 196,435 89,926 (8,094)(4)%106,509 118 %
Servicing income87,489 65,770 24,719 21,719 33 %41,051 166 %
Total revenue, net$1,587,985 $1,349,292 $870,464 $238,693 18 %$478,828 55 %
Operating expenses (2)
Loss on loan purchase commitment$140,265 $204,081 $246,700 $(63,816)(31)%$(42,619)(17)%
Provision for credit losses331,860 255,272 65,878 76,588 30 %189,394 287 %
Funding costs183,013 69,694 52,700 113,319 163 %16,994 32 %
Processing and servicing257,343 157,814 73,578 99,529 63 %84,236 114 %
Technology and data analytics615,818 418,643 249,336 197,175 47 %169,307 68 %
Sales and marketing638,280 532,343 182,190 105,937 20 %350,153 192 %
General and administrative586,398 577,493 383,749 8,905 %193,744 50 %
Restructuring and other35,870 — 
35,870 
NM*
— 
NM*
Total operating expenses2,788,847 2,215,340 1,254,131 573,507 26 %961,209 77 %
Operating loss$(1,200,862)$(866,048)$(383,667)$(334,814)39 %$(482,381)126 %
Other (expense) income, net211,617 141,217 (59,703)70,400 50 %200,920 (337)%
Loss before income taxes$(989,245)$(724,831)$(443,370)$(264,414)36 %$(281,461)63 %
Income tax benefit(3,900)(17,414)(2,343)13,514 (78)%(15,071)643 %
Net loss$(985,345)$(707,417)$(441,027)$(277,928)39 %$(266,390)60 %
* Not meaningful
(1)Upon purchase of a loan from our originating bank partners at a price above the fair market value of the loan or upon the origination of a loan with a par value in excess of the fair market value of the loan, a discount is included in the amortized cost basis of the loan. For loans held for investment, this discount is amortized over the life of the loan into interest income. When a loan is sold to a third-party loan buyer or off-balance sheet securitization trust, the unamortized discount is released in full at the time of sale and recognized as part of the gain or loss on sales of loans. However, the cumulative value of the loss on loan purchase commitment or loss on loan origination, the interest income recognized over time from the amortization of discount while retained, and the release of discount into gain on sales of loans, together net to zero over the life of the loan. The following table details activity for the discount, included in loans held for investment, for the periods indicated:


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Year ended June 30,
20232022*2021*
(in thousands)
Balance at the beginning of the period$42,780 $53,177 $28,659 
Additions from loans purchased or originated, net of refunds259,720 366,900 266,717 
Amortization of discount(158,703)(185,050)(101,078)
Unamortized discount released on loans sold(46,885)(191,612)(141,130)
Impact of foreign currency translation(336)(635)
Balance at the end of the period$96,576 $42,780 $53,177 
* Prior period balances have been adjusted to include impact of foreign currency translation.
(2) Amounts include stock-based compensation as follows:
Year ended June 30,
202320222021
(in thousands)
General and administrative$239,923 $248,797 $196,554 
Technology and data analytics181,396 116,531 76,643 
Sales and marketing25,914 23,224 17,092 
Processing and servicing4,476 2,431 2,218 
Total stock-based compensation in operating expenses451,709 390,983 292,507 
Capitalized into property, equipment and software, net80,108 54,542 13,999 
Total stock-based compensation$531,817 $445,525 $306,506 
Comparison of the Years Ended June 30, 2023 and 2022

Merchant Network Revenue
Merchant network revenue is impacted by both GMV and the mix of loans originated on our platform as merchant fees vary based on loan characteristics. In particular, merchant network revenue as a percentage of GMV typically increases with longer-term, non-interest-bearing loans with higher AOVs, and decreases with shorter-term, interest-bearing loans with lower AOVs.
Merchant network revenue for the year ended June 30, 2023 increased by $49.1 million, or 11%, compared to the same period in 2022. The increase is primarily attributed to an increase of $4.7 billion in GMV for the year ended June 30, 2023. The increase in GMV is a result of the expansion of our active merchant base and consumers, reaching approximately 254,000 and 16.5 million, respectively, as of June 30, 2023, up from approximately 235,000 and 14.0 million, respectively, as of June 30, 2022. Additionally, the average transactions per consumer increased from 3.0 as of June 30, 2022 to 3.9 as of June 30, 2023. The increase in consumers and average transactions per consumer is partially offset by a decrease in AOVs. For the year ended June 30, 2023 AOV was $318 down from $374 for the same period in fiscal 2022. The decrease in AOV due to the diversification of our merchant base and our initiative to drive repeat usage of our platform beyond one-time high AOV purchases.
Card Network Revenue
Card network revenue for the year ended June 30, 2023 increased by $18.6 million, or 19%, compared to the same period in 2022. Card network revenue growth is correlated with the growth of GMV processed by our issuer processors. As such, the increase is primarily driven by the $5.9 billion of GMV processed through our issuer processors, an increase of 25% for the year ended June 30, 2023, as compared to the same period in 2022. This was driven by increased card activity as well as growth in existing and new merchants using our card platform, growing from approximately 1,100 merchants as of June 30, 2022 to approximately 1,300 merchants as of June 30, 2023.
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Card network revenue is also impacted by the mix of merchants as different merchants can have different interchange rates depending on their industry or size, among other factors.
Interest Income
Interest income for the year ended June 30, 2023 increased by $157.3 million, or 30%, compared to the year ended June 30, 2022. Generally, interest income is correlated with changes in the average balance of loans held for investment, as we recognize interest on loans held for investment using the effective interest method over the life of the loan. The average balance of loans held for investment increased by 50% to $3.4 billion for the year ended June 30, 2023, compared to the same period in fiscal 2022. The increase in loans held for investment on our consolidated balance sheet was in response to the current market environment and our ability to allocate loans to warehouse credit facilities with better economic terms while optimizing cost of funds. As a result of the increase in loans held for investment on our consolidated balance sheet, interest income from interest-bearing loans increased by $195.2 million, or 53%, compared to the same period in 2022. This increase was partially due to our recent pricing initiatives, including the increase of the maximum APR for loans facilitated on our platform from 30% to 36% and the introduction of merchant-subsidized low APR loans (4% to 9.99%) as an alternative to monthly 0% APR programs.
Gain on Sale of Loans
Gain on sales of loans for the year ended June 30, 2023 decreased by $8.1 million, or 4%, compared to the same period in 2022. The decrease was partially driven by higher benchmark interest rates and a more conservative credit outlook, which impacted pricing terms for loan sales. The decrease was partially offset by an increase in loan sale volume to third-party loan buyers. We sold loans with a unpaid principal balance of $7.5 billion for the year ended June 30, 2023, compared to $7.1 billion for the year ended June 30, 2022.
Servicing Income
Servicing income includes net servicing fee revenue and fair value adjustments for servicing assets and liabilities, and is recognized for loan portfolios sold to third party loan buyers and for loans held within our off balance sheet securitizations. Servicing fee revenue varies by contractual servicing fee arrangement and is earned as a percentage of the average unpaid principal balance of loans held by each counterparty where we have a servicing agreement. We reduce servicing income for certain fees we are required to pay per our contractual servicing arrangement.
With respect to fair value adjustments, we remeasure the fair value of servicing assets and liabilities each period and recognize the change in fair value in servicing income. We utilize a discounted cash flow approach to remeasure the fair value of servicing rights. Because we earn servicing income based on the outstanding principal balance of the portfolio, fair value adjustments are impacted by the timing and amount of loan repayments. As such, over the term of each loan portfolio sold, fair value adjustments for servicing assets will decrease servicing income and fair value adjustments for servicing liabilities will increase servicing income. We discuss our valuation methodology and significant Level 3 inputs for servicing assets and liabilities within Note 13. Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities.
Servicing income for the year ended June 30, 2023 increased by $21.7 million, or 33%, compared to the same period in 2022. The increase was primarily due to the average unpaid principal balance of loans owned by third-party loan owners, which increased from $3.6 billion during the year ended June 30, 2022 to $4.5 billion during the year ended June 30, 2023. In addition to the increase in servicing income related to the unpaid principal balance of loans outstanding, we recognized a gain of $8.3 million related to changes in fair value of servicing assets and liabilities during the year ended June 30, 2023, an increase of $2.0 million, compared to the same period in 2022.


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Loss on Loan Purchase Commitment
We purchase certain loans from our originating bank partners that are processed through our platform and our originating bank partners put back to us. Under the terms of the agreements with our originating bank partners, we are generally required to pay the principal amount plus accrued interest for such loans. In certain instances, our originating bank partners may originate loans with zero or below market interest rates that we are required to purchase. In these instances, we may be required to purchase the loan for a price in excess of the fair market value of such loans, which results in a loss. These losses are recognized as loss on loan purchase commitment in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. These costs are incurred on a per loan basis.
Loss on loan purchase commitment for the year ended June 30, 2023 decreased by $63.8 million, or 31%, compared to the same period in 2022. The decrease was due to a decrease in the volume of long-term 0% APR loans purchased from our originating bank partners compared to the prior period, which are purchased above fair market value. The difference between fair value and purchase price for our loans is generally correlated with the term length and APR of the loans. Additionally, as the percentage of our portfolio shifts towards more interest-bearing loans, loss on loan purchase commitment is expected to decrease as a percentage of the originated principal amount. During the year ended June 30, 2023, we purchased $1.4 billion, of long-term 0% APR loan receivables from our originating bank partners, which represented a decrease of $0.7 billion, or 33%, compared to the same period in 2022.
Provision for Credit Losses
Provision for credit losses generally represents the amount of expense required to maintain the allowance for credit losses on our consolidated balance sheet, which represents management’s estimate of future losses. In the event that our loans outperform expectation and/or we reduce our expectation of credit losses in future periods, we may release reserves and thereby reduce the allowance for credit losses, yielding income in the provision for credit losses. The provision is determined based on our estimate of expected future losses on loans originated during the period and held for investment on our balance sheet, changes in our estimate of future losses on loans outstanding as of the end of the period and the net charge-offs incurred in the period.
Provision for credit losses increased by $76.6 million, or 30%, for the year ended June 30, 2023 compared to the same period in 2022, driven by growth in the volume of loans held for investment and partially offset by improvements in the credit quality of loans outstanding. Loans held for investment as of June 30, 2023 was $4.4 billion, an increase of $1.9 billion, or 76% as compared to the same period in 2022. The allowance for credit losses as a percentage of loans held for investment decreased from 6.2% as of June 30, 2022 to 4.6% as of June 30, 2023, primarily driven by improvements in credit quality of loans outstanding and repayment trends.
Funding Costs
Funding costs consist of interest expense and the amortization of fees for certain borrowings collateralized by our loans including warehouse credit facilities and consolidated securitizations, sale and repurchase agreements collateralized by our retained securitization interests, and other costs incurred in connection with funding the purchases and originations of loans. Funding costs for a given period are driven by the average outstanding balance of funding debt and notes issued by securitization trusts as well as our contractual interest expense, net of the impact of any designated cash flow hedges.
Funding costs for the year ended June 30, 2023 increased by $113.3 million or 163%, compared to the same period in 2022. The increase was primarily due to higher benchmark interest rates and an increase of funding debt and notes issued by securitization trusts during the year ended June 30, 2023. The average total of funding debt from warehouses and securitizations for the year ended June 30, 2023 was $2.5 billion compared to $2.2 billion during the same period in 2022, an increase of $326.0 million, or 15%. The increase was also attributable to a larger volume of on-balance sheet loans being retained during the period. The average loan balance on-balance sheet was $3.4 billion for the year ended June 30, 2023, an increase of 53% compared to $2.2 billion during the same period in 2022.
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Processing and Servicing
Processing and servicing expense consists primarily of payment processing fees, third-party customer support and collection expense, salaries and personnel-related costs of our customer care team, platform fees, and allocated overhead.
Processing and servicing expense for the year ended June 30, 2023 increased by $99.5 million, or 63%, compared to the same period in 2022. This increase was primarily due to a $46.0 million, or 51%, increase in payment processing fees related to increased servicing activity and payment volume for the year ended June 30, 2023. Additionally, our platform fees increased by $30.8 million, or 290%, for the year ended June 30, 2023 due to an increase in our platform partner volume with a large enterprise partner. Third-party customer support and collections spend increased by $13.7 million, or 36%, compared to the same period in 2022 due to increased loan volume and transaction growth during the period.
Technology and Data Analytics
Technology and data analytics expense consists primarily of the salaries, stock-based compensation, and personnel-related costs of our engineering, product, and credit and analytics employees, as well as the amortization of internally-developed software and technology intangible assets, and our infrastructure and hosting costs.
Technology and data analytics expense for the year ended June 30, 2023 increased by $197.2 million or 47%, compared to the same period in 2022. This increase is primarily driven by an increase of $100.4 million, or 39%, in stock-based compensation and payroll and personnel-related costs for the year ended June 30, 2023, compared to the same period in 2022, partially due to an increased average headcount as we continue to support our growth and technology platform, despite a reduction in force in connection with the 2023 Restructuring Plan . Additionally, amortization of internally-developed software and intangible assets increased by $70.8 million or 184%, compared to the same period in 2022, primarily as a result of an increase in the number of capitalized projects and our periodic reassessment of the remaining useful lives of those assets. Capitalized projects grew by 148% from approximately 270 projects as of June 30, 2022 to 660 projects as of June 30, 2023. Infrastructure and hosting costs increased by $20.6 million, or 23%, and data provider costs increased by $11.5 million, or 38%, for the year ended June 30, 2023, compared to the same period in 2022, due to increased capacity requirements of our technology platform driven by increases in active users and transactions per active consumer.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing costs consist of the expense related to warrants and other share-based payments granted to our enterprise partners, salaries and personnel-related costs, as well as costs of general marketing and promotional activities, promotional event programs, sponsorships, and allocated overhead.
Sales and marketing expense for the year ended June 30, 2023 increased by $105.9 million or 20%, compared to the same period in 2022. The increase was primarily driven by Amazon warrant expense which increased from $281.0 million for the year ended June 30, 2022 to $463.3 million for the year ended June 30, 2023, as fiscal 2023 was the first full year of the Amazon warrants vesting. The increase was partially offset by a $36.1 million, or 65%, decrease in brand and consumer marketing spend, as well as a decrease of $15.2 million, or 84%, in business-to-business marketing spend during the year ended June 30, 2023, compared to the same period in 2022, primarily due to a reduced number of paid brand marketing campaigns and brand partnerships. Additionally, the amortization of our commercial agreement with Shopify decreased by $26.4 million, or 42%, during the year ended June 30, 2023, compared to the same period in 2022 due to an amendment made in our partnership agreement, which extended the period of benefit over which we amortize the commercial agreement asset.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of expenses related to our finance, legal, risk operations, human resources, and administrative personnel. General and administrative expenses also include costs related to fees paid for professional services, including legal, tax and accounting services, allocated overhead, and certain discretionary expenses incurred from operating our technology platform.
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General and administrative expense for the year ended June 30, 2023 increased by $8.9 million or 2%, compared to the same period in 2022. The increase was primarily driven by a $28.5 million, or 7%, increase in payroll and personnel-related costs due to an increase in average headcount compared to the same period in 2022, despite a reduction in force in connection with the 2023 Restructuring Plan. The increase was partially offset by a $9.7 million, or 24%, decrease in professional service fees due to reduced spend related to acquisitions and international expansion programs. Additionally, recruitment costs decreased by $9.8 million, or 78%, in line with our restructuring and cost management plans.
Restructuring and Other
Restructuring and other for the year ended June 30, 2023 increased by $35.9 million compared to the same period in 2022. During the year ended June 30, 2023, we committed to a restructuring plan designed to manage our operating expenses in response to current macroeconomic conditions and ongoing business prioritization efforts. The associated restructuring charges during the year ended June 30, 2023 were approximately $35.9 million, which included expenditures of $29.7 million relating to employee severance and other employment termination benefits and $6.2 million of accelerated amortization expense due to a reduction of right-of-use lease assets resulting from our exiting leased office space. For further information on the associated restructuring liability, refer to Note 16. Restructuring and other in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-K.
Other (Expense) Income, net
Other (expense) income, net includes interest earned on our money market funds included in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, interest earned on securities available for sale, gains on derivative agreements driven by increases in fair value, amortization of convertible debt issuance cost as well as gains (losses) on extinguishment, revolving credit facility issuance costs, and fair value adjustments resulting from changes in the fair value of our contingent consideration liability, primarily driven by changes in the market price of our Class A common stock.
Other (expense) income, net increased by $70.4 million, or 50%, during the year ended June 30, 2023, compared to the same period in 2022. The increase is primarily driven by a gain of $89.8 million recognized on the early extinguishment of our convertible debt resulting from a repurchase of a portion of our 2026 Notes during the year ended June 30, 2023, as well as an increase of $65.9 million in interest income from cash and investments due to higher interest rates. The increase was partially offset by a gain of $8.2 million recognized on the change in fair value of the contingent consideration liability associated with our acquisition of PayBright, driven by changes in the value of our common stock, as compared to a gain of $89.3 million in the same period in 2022, a decrease of $81.1 million.
Income Tax Expense (Benefit)
The income tax benefit for the year ended June 30, 2023 decreased by $13.5 million, or 78%, compared to the same period in 2022. The tax benefit recognized for the year ended June 30, 2022 was primarily attributable to a change in our assessment of the future realization of certain Canadian deferred tax assets during the period, which resulted in a one-time income tax benefit for the release of all of the valuation allowance against our Canadian deferred tax assets.
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Liquidity and Capital Resources

Sources and Uses of Funds
We maintain a capital-efficient model through a diverse set of funding sources. When we originate a loan directly or purchase a loan originated by our originating bank partners, we often utilize warehouse credit facilities with certain lenders to finance our lending activities or loan purchases. We sell the loans we originate or purchase from our originating bank partners to whole loan buyers and securitization investors through forward flow arrangements and securitization transactions, and earn servicing fees from continuing to act as the servicer on the loans. We proactively manage the allocation of loans on our platform across various funding channels based on several factors including, but not limited to, internal risk limits and policies, capital market conditions and channel economics. With rising interest rates and inflation, our excess funding capacity and committed and long-term relationships with a diverse group of existing funding partners help provide flexibility as we optimize our funding to support the growth in loan volume.
Our principal sources of liquidity are cash and cash equivalents, available for sale securities, available capacity from warehouse and revolving credit facilities, revolving securitizations, forward flow loan sale arrangements, and certain cash flows from our operations. As of June 30, 2023, we had $2.1 billion in cash and cash equivalents and available for sale securities, $2.1 billion in available funding debt capacity, excluding our purchase commitments from third party loan buyers, and $205.0 million in borrowing capacity available under our revolving credit facility.
The following table summarizes our cash, cash equivalents and investments in debt securities (in thousands):
June 30, 2023June 30, 2022
Cash and cash equivalents (1)
$892,027 $1,255,171 
Investments in short-term debt securities (2)
915,003 1,295,811 
Investments in long-term debt securities (2)
259,650 299,562 
  Cash, cash equivalent and investments in debt securities $2,066,680 $2,850,544 
(1)Cash and cash equivalents consist of checking, money market and savings accounts held at financial institutions and short term highly liquid marketable securities, including money market funds, government bonds, and other corporate securities purchased with an original maturity of three months or less.
(2)Securities available for sale at fair value primarily consist of certificates of deposits, corporate bonds, commercial paper, and government bonds. Short-term securities have maturities less than or equal to one year, and long-term securities range from greater than one year to less than five years.

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Funding Debt
Our funding debt as of June 30, 2023 primarily include warehouse credit facilities and sale and repurchase agreements. A detailed description of each of our borrowing arrangements is included in Note 9. Debt in the notes to the consolidated financial statements. The following table summarizes our funding debt facilities as of June 30, 2023.
Maturity Fiscal YearBorrowing CapacityPrincipal Outstanding
(in thousands)
2024$500,000 $202,245 
20251,213,170 563,350 
2026838,617 542,288 
2027— — 
202839,155 39,155 
Thereafter1,257,478 428,660 
Total$3,848,420 $1,775,698 
U.S.
Our warehouse credit facilities allow us to borrow up to an aggregate of $3.3 billion, mature between 2024 and 2029 and subject to covenant compliance, generally permit borrowings up to 12 months prior to the final maturity date. As of June 30, 2023, we have drawn an aggregate of $1.4 billion on our warehouse credit facilities. As of June 30, 2023, we were in compliance with all applicable covenants in the agreements. Refer to Note 9. Debt in the notes to the consolidated financial statements for further details on our warehouse credit facilities.
International
We use various credit facilities to finance the origination of loan receivables in Canada. Similar to our U.S. warehouse credit facilities, borrowings under these agreements are referred to as funding debt, and proceeds from the borrowings may only be used for the purposes of facilitating loan funding and origination. These facilities are secured by Canadian loan receivables pledged to the respective facility as collateral, mature between 2025 and 2029. As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate commitment amount of these facilities was $548.4 million on a revolving basis, of which $349.6 million was drawn. Refer to Note 9. Debt in the notes to the consolidated financial statements for further details on our other funding facilities.
Sale and Repurchase Agreements
We have various sale and repurchase agreements pursuant to our retained interests in our off-balance sheet securitizations where we have sold these securities to a counterparty with an obligation to repurchase at a future date and price. These agreements have an initial term of three months and subject to mutual agreement by Affirm and the counterparty, we may enter into one or more repurchase date extensions, each for an additional three month term at market interest rates on such extension date. We had $11.0 million and $27.0 million in debt outstanding under our sale and repurchase agreements disclosed within funding debt on the consolidated balance sheets as of June 30, 2023 and June 30, 2022, respectively. Refer to Note 9. Debt in the notes to the consolidated financial statements for further details on our sale and repurchase agreements.
Other Funding Sources
Securitizations
In connection with asset-backed securitizations, we sponsor and establish trusts (deemed to be VIEs) to ultimately purchase loans facilitated by our platform. Securities issued from our asset-backed securitizations are senior or subordinated, based on the waterfall criteria of loan payments to each security class. The subordinated
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residual interests issued from these transactions are first to absorb credit losses in accordance with the waterfall criteria. We consolidate securitization VIEs when we are deemed to be the primary beneficiary and therefore have the power to direct the activities that most significantly affect the VIEs’ economic performance and a variable interest that could potentially be significant to the VIE. Where we consolidate the securitization trusts, the loans held in the securitization trusts are included in loans held for investment, and the notes sold to third-party investors are recorded in notes issued by securitization trusts in the consolidated balance sheets. Refer to Note 10. Securitization and Variable Interest Entities in the notes to the consolidated financial statements for further details.
Revolving Credit Facility
In February 2022, we entered into a revolving credit agreement for a $165.0 million unsecured revolving credit facility, maturing on February 4, 2025, which was subsequently amended to increase the unsecured revolving commitments to $205.0 million. As of June 30, 2023, there are no borrowings outstanding under the facility. The facility contains certain covenants and restrictions, including certain financial maintenance covenants. As of June 30, 2023, we were in compliance with all applicable covenants in the agreements. Refer to Note 9. Debt in the notes to the consolidated financial statements for further details on our revolving credit facility.
Forward Flow Loan Sale Arrangements
We have forward flow loan sale arrangements that facilitates the sale of whole loans to counterparties. Forward flow arrangements are generally fixed term in nature, with term lengths ranging between one to three years, during which we periodically sell loans to our counterparties.
Cash Flows

The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods presented:
Year ended
June 30,
20232022
(in thousands)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities$12,181 $(162,194)